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Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

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The Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine program is located in the Atlantic Veterinary College.
(902) 566-0542

A.  General Structure of the Program

The MSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments/faculties to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the "General Regulations for Graduate Programs," described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master's degree:

Residency Requirements
Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the Master's program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full-time semester. A student, admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category, must spend at least one additional semester as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MSc degree.

Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B.  Courses

Prescribed Studies 

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department/faculty. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department/faculty and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain an average grade of at least a B standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

A department/faculty may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student's progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses
In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

C. The Thesis

Research
Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Thesis
Each candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate's capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate's own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures
The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination, to the members of the Master's Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master's Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master's Examination
The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master's Examination and carried out by the Master's Examination Committee.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as "unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory." If the result is "unsatisfactory," the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master's Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second "unsatisfactory" result will terminate candidacy at this university.

 

Want more information about Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
The Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine program is located in the Atlantic Veterinary College.
(902) 566-0542

The graduate students will register in one of the four academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Biomedical Sciences 
Animal Behaviour
Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology 
Cell and Molecular Biology
Neuroscience
Endocrinology

Department of Companion Animals 
Anesthesiology 
Cardiology
Diagnostic Imaging
Small Animal Medicine
Small Animal Surgery

Department of Health Management 
Epidemiology/Health Management
Animal Science and Animal Nutrition 
Clinical Sciences
Aquatic Animal Health
Animal Welfare
Biostatistics
Public Health

Department of Pathology and Microbiology 
Morphologic Pathology 
Wildlife Pathology
Clinical Pathology 
Parasitology 
Virology 
Bacteriology 
Public Health 
Immunology 
Aquatic Animal Health
Biosecurity

Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. Students are required to complete courses totaling a minimum of twelve credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies Course. All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of "In Progress" for semesters prior to completion of the course and "Pass" or "Fail" (or a numerical grade in the case of Chemistry 8900) for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

 

Want more information about Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
The Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine program is located in the Atlantic Veterinary College.
(902) 566-0542

The Master's Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

  • two graduate faculty of the Department, who are not members of the Supervisory Committee, one of whom is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the Master's Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;
  • the Supervisor of the candidate's research;
  • one additional member of the Supervisory Committee;
  • one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.
Overview

A.  General Structure of the Program

The MSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments/faculties to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the "General Regulations for Graduate Programs," described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master's degree:

Residency Requirements
Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the Master's program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full-time semester. A student, admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category, must spend at least one additional semester as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MSc degree.

Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B.  Courses

Prescribed Studies 

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department/faculty. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department/faculty and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain an average grade of at least a B standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

A department/faculty may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student's progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses
In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

C. The Thesis

Research
Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Thesis
Each candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate's capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate's own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures
The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination, to the members of the Master's Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master's Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master's Examination
The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master's Examination and carried out by the Master's Examination Committee.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as "unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory." If the result is "unsatisfactory," the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master's Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second "unsatisfactory" result will terminate candidacy at this university.

 

Registration

The graduate students will register in one of the four academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Biomedical Sciences 
Animal Behaviour
Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology 
Cell and Molecular Biology
Neuroscience
Endocrinology

Department of Companion Animals 
Anesthesiology 
Cardiology
Diagnostic Imaging
Small Animal Medicine
Small Animal Surgery

Department of Health Management 
Epidemiology/Health Management
Animal Science and Animal Nutrition 
Clinical Sciences
Aquatic Animal Health
Animal Welfare
Biostatistics
Public Health

Department of Pathology and Microbiology 
Morphologic Pathology 
Wildlife Pathology
Clinical Pathology 
Parasitology 
Virology 
Bacteriology 
Public Health 
Immunology 
Aquatic Animal Health
Biosecurity

Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. Students are required to complete courses totaling a minimum of twelve credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies Course. All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of "In Progress" for semesters prior to completion of the course and "Pass" or "Fail" (or a numerical grade in the case of Chemistry 8900) for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

 

Examination Committee

The Master's Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

  • two graduate faculty of the Department, who are not members of the Supervisory Committee, one of whom is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the Master's Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;
  • the Supervisor of the candidate's research;
  • one additional member of the Supervisory Committee;
  • one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.

Overview

A.  General Structure of the Program

The MSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments/faculties to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the "General Regulations for Graduate Programs," described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master's degree:

Residency Requirements
Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the Master's program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full-time semester. A student, admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category, must spend at least one additional semester as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MSc degree.

Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B.  Courses

Prescribed Studies 

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department/faculty. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department/faculty and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain an average grade of at least a B standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

A department/faculty may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student's progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses
In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

C. The Thesis

Research
Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Thesis
Each candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate's capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate's own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures
The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination, to the members of the Master's Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master's Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master's Examination
The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master's Examination and carried out by the Master's Examination Committee.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as "unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory." If the result is "unsatisfactory," the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master's Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second "unsatisfactory" result will terminate candidacy at this university.

 

Registration

The graduate students will register in one of the four academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Biomedical Sciences 
Animal Behaviour
Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology 
Cell and Molecular Biology
Neuroscience
Endocrinology

Department of Companion Animals 
Anesthesiology 
Cardiology
Diagnostic Imaging
Small Animal Medicine
Small Animal Surgery

Department of Health Management 
Epidemiology/Health Management
Animal Science and Animal Nutrition 
Clinical Sciences
Aquatic Animal Health
Animal Welfare
Biostatistics
Public Health

Department of Pathology and Microbiology 
Morphologic Pathology 
Wildlife Pathology
Clinical Pathology 
Parasitology 
Virology 
Bacteriology 
Public Health 
Immunology 
Aquatic Animal Health
Biosecurity

Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. Students are required to complete courses totaling a minimum of twelve credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies Course. All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of "In Progress" for semesters prior to completion of the course and "Pass" or "Fail" (or a numerical grade in the case of Chemistry 8900) for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

 

Examination Committee

The Master's Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

  • two graduate faculty of the Department, who are not members of the Supervisory Committee, one of whom is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the Master's Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;
  • the Supervisor of the candidate's research;
  • one additional member of the Supervisory Committee;
  • one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.
Want more information about Master of Science - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
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Course Level: 
Biomedical Sciences
Courses: 

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 801 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
This laboratory-oriented course introduces students to the principles and procedures required for the examination of structures with the transmission electron microscope  (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the interpretation/analysis of ultrastructural features of cells and tissues.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 3 hours
LABORATORIES: 4 hours

VBS 803 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
This course provides graduate students in a biomedical field with general knowledge and principles of biomedical research. The lectures and tutorials cover topics like the scientific approach, experimental design, scientific writing, intellectual property, research ethics, preparing seminars, and grant writing. The laboratories focus on laboratory techniques that are useful in biomedical research.
LECTURES/TUTORIALS: 1-3 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3

VBS 817 CURRENT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course deals with advanced topics in Marine Biotechnology. Topics include: marine microbiology, natural products biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products, heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes, drug development, chemical ecology. The course will meet for three contact hours per week and will involve in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature.
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 241/242 OR 243 and permission of instructor; a course in biochemistry would be an asset but is not required.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB/TUTORIAL: 0
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 823 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to enhance student knowledge of the basic concepts in developmental biology. Early development of vertebrates is discussed with emphasis on experimental and molecular analysis of developmental mechanisms.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
TUTORIAL: 3 hours

VBS 824 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in developmental biology. Topics are selected from the recent literature according to student interests and may include embryonic induction, regulation of morphogenesis  and differentiation, mechanisms of regional specification and pattern formation.
PREREQUISITES: VBS 823 or permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 845 ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impacts assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments, environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer-reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students, and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
LECTURE/LAB: 3
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 852 INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE
This is a lecture/discussion course with supplemental laboratories and readings. Topics include introductions to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of mammalian systems including current concepts in neuronal processing and integration.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate anatomy, physiology and pharmacology or equivalent and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
TUTORIALS: 2 hours

VBS 863 PRINCIPLES OF CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
This advanced course on pharmacological principles is based on an understanding of cell physiology. The course covers membrane properties and principles of receptor function relevant to cell physiology and pharmacology and includes cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of drug actions. Students present and discuss weekly readings.
PREREQUISITES: Undergraduate biochemistry and physiology and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1 hour
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 876 BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides students with an understanding of the chemical and biochemical basis of toxicology. The principles of toxicology are the general focus of the course, but system specific aspects are covered with an emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. The course includes lectures, seminars and student presentations.
PREREQUISITES: A course on Cellular Basis of Physiology and Pharmacology or an undergraduate course in pharmacology or toxicology that is approved by the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1.5 hours
TUTORIAL: 1.5 hours

VBS 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VBS 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VBS 892 ADVANCES IN FISH PHYSIOLOGY
This is an advanced course covering a range of selected topics on fish form and function. Interaction of fish with their ecosystems is emphasized. Students are actively involved by presenting and discussing readings provided weekly. Each student presents a formal seminar on a selected topic at the conclusion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in animal physiology (i.e. Bio 402 or VBS 121 and 122, or equivalent) and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour

VBS 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Course Level: 
Companion Animals
Courses: 

COMPANION ANIMALS COURSES

VCA 811 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF URINARY, ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC/ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary, endocrine and metabolic/electrolyte disorders of companion animals. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 812 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides initial training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal medicine faculty and have close supervision when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 813 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides further training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and will consult often with small animal medicine faculty. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 814 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 815 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 816 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery, including the pathophysiology of advanced musculoskeletal diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical treatments. Topics include fracture management, juvenile orthopaedic disease, osteoarthritis and management, joint replacement, ligament and tendon injuries, immune mediated muscular and joint diseases, orthopaedic surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in orthopaedic implants. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 817 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND REHABILITATION
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in pathophysiology of advanced neurologic diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical and conservative treatment of these conditions. Topics include spinal fracture management, intervertebral disc disease, intracranial disease, immune mediated and infectious neurological diseases, neurological surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in neurosurgery. Students also discuss techniques and current theory regarding rehabilitation of neurologic animals and animals with musculoskeletal disease. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 818 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE CARDIOTHORACIC SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical management of diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity. Topics include pathophysiology of surgical diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity; advanced surgical techniques to treat these diseases; and post-operative care and prognosis. Diseases covered include patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary neoplasia, thoracic wall neoplasia and trauma, brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and tracheal collapse. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 819 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the urogenital system and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include pre-operative management of patients with renal insufficiency, and indications and surgical methods for diseases involving the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male and female reproductive systems. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the urogenital system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 821 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AND CRITICAL CARE
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders of companion animals. Issues in critical care medicine are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 822 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal and endocrine systems and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include gastric dilation volvulus; intestinal and gastric foreign bodies; intestinal and gastric neoplasia; persistent right aortic arch; abdominal wall and diaphragmatic hernias; diseases of the liver and gallbladder; diseases of the colon, thyroid, and parathyroid; and adrenal disease. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the gastrointestinal system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 823 ADVANCED SURGICAL BIOLOGY, WOUND MANAGEMENT, AND EAR DISEASE
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical pathophysiology of wounds and ear diseases, as well as advanced concepts regarding biomaterials, asepsis, and critical care for trauma and post-operative patients. Topics include wound healing and grafting, methods of sterilization and pathophysiology of shock, use of blood transfusion medicine antibiotics in surgical patients, and general surgical techniques. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 824 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF NEUROMUSCULAR, JOINT, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS AND ONCOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular, joint, hematopoietic, and immune mediated disorders of companion animals. Issues in medical oncology are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management, are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE:  Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology, and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 825 COMPANION ANIMAL ANESTHESIA, RADIOLOGY, & CARDIOLOGY
This course provides advanced training in companion animal anesthesiology, radiology, and cardiology and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVAA, ACVR, ACVIM - cardiology), students spend 4 weeks in companion animal clinical anesthesia, radiology, and cardiology at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures (e.g. radiography) interpret diagnostic tests, and anesthetize companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include radiographic and anesthetic techniques, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathophysiology etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  1

VCA 826 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 8 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 827 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 828  COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 829 COMPANION ANIMAL TRIAGE AND EMERGENCY CARE
This course provides training in companion animal triage and emergency care and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, AVCAA, ACVR), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal triage services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients in need of emergency and critical care. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 831 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF GASTROINTESTINAL  HEPATOBILIARY PANCREATIC AND INFECTIOUS DISORDERS AND NUTRITION
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and infectious disorders of companion animals. Issues in nutritional management of disease are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 832 ADVANCED COMPANION ANIMAL TOPICS 
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and radiology at a level appropriate for interns. The course meets two times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in companion animal medicine, surgery and radiology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 833 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT 
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 841 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY I: APPLIED  PHYSIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neuromuscular physiology, as well as body fluid composition and haemostasis. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems and relates these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 842 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY II: APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives, analgesics, injectable and inhalant anaesthetics, local anaesthetics, and muscle relaxants, as well as autonomic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs and relate these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 843 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY III: CLINICAL ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the anaesthetic management of patients with disease of different body systems, as well as selected patients and procedures. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pathophysiology of different disease processes in both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 844 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides initial training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will observe, perform, and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of examinations with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.  Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of routine radiographic small, large, and exotic imaging studies; proper dictation techniques, ultrasonographic applications, techniques, and interpretation principles; radiation safety. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 845 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will perform and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. This course also serves as an introduction to Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy. Students will observe, perform, and dictate studies in these modalities. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of all modalities with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.   Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy; proper dictation techniques, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy applications, techniques and interpretation principles; imaging artifacts, special procedures. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 846 ALTERNATIVE IMAGING - TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
This course is a detailed study of alternative imaging techniques used in veterinary medicine. Topics included: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Scintigraphy to include methods of image formation and display, imaging principles, with particular emphasis given to clinical applications (indications, equipment/instrumentation, common artifacts, scanning protocols, principles of interpretation, and appearance of various diseases with the various modalities).
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 851 ANATOMY AND PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This course will provide the student with an in-depth review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and cross-sectional anatomy, as well as basic physics uses in diagnostic imaging. Topics presented include: current anatomic nomenclature, radiographic anatomy of the axial and appendicular musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, as well as athrology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. All of the aforementioned topics will be in regards to radiographic, sonographic, and cross-sectional anatomy. Production and physical properties of X-rays, equipment and accessories, darkroom, computed and digital radiography, radiographic quality, artifacts, and technique chart formation.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in anatomy and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 852 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations with guidance from faculty as needed. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: interpretation of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality.  Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844 and 845
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 853 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations.  The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: in-depth discussions of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 852.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 854 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING - SPECIAL PROCEDURES
This course will provide the student with alternative imaging methods and diagnostic tests that may complement or supercede plain film radiography. Indications, contra- indications, technical aspects, standard imaging protocols (including positioning), and principles of interpretation of various imaging studies will be presented. Specific topics presented include: contrast media, esophagography, upper GI series, gastrography, colonography, excretory urography, cystography, urethrography, vaginourethrography, myelography, angiocardiography, venography, lymphangiography, valvuloplasty, valvular embolization techniques, arthrography, fistulography, stress radiography, peritoneography, and stress radiographic techniques.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 855 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, RADIATION BIOLOGY, SAFETY AND ARTIFACTS
This course provides a detailed study of physiology/pathophysiology as it relates to various veterinary diseases, as well as an introduction to radiation biology, safety, and artifacts.  Specific topics include: Physiology and pathophysiology of specific organ systems: Alimentary, cardiovascular, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, urogenital system, endocrine system. Radiation biology, oncology/tumor biology, radiation monitoring, and radiation protection.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc Program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VCA 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VCA 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

 
Course Level: 
Health Management
Courses: 

HEALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 801 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VHM 802 ADVANCED VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course covers linear and logistic models, i.e. multiple linear and logistic regression and analysis of variance procedures for analysis of continuous and dichotomous outcomes with respect to multiple factors or explanatory variables. In addition, the course gives an introduction to experimental design and to analysis of data from complex experimental designs with multiple levels of variation or repeated measurements. The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 812.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours

VHM 811 EPIDEMIOLOGY I
This course provides students with an understanding of epidemiologic principles and methods with an emphasis on the concepts used in population health research. Specific topics covered include observational study design, sampling, measures of disease frequency, measures of association, validity (bias), confounding and stratified analyzes, screening tests and the design of clinical trials.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES / SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 812 EPIDEMIOLOGY II
This course provides students with a more detailed understanding of epidemiologic study design principles and a working knowledge of many multivariable statistical methods used in epidemiologic research. Specific topics covered include: linear regression, logistic regression, Poisson models, analysis of survival data, design of observational studies and validity (bias). The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 802.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: Four
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 822 POPULATION MEDICINE IN AQUACULTURE
This course covers current developments in finfish, crustacean and bivalve clinical health management with a particular focus on the epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious production problems. The lecture and seminar course topics include disease surveillance, diagnostic test evaluation, investigation of causal factors and evaluating health management practices. Field trips to aquaculture sites in the Atlantic Canada region are necessary.
PREREQUISITE: DVM, VPM 811 (or equivalent) and VHM 811 and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VHM 823 HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SHELLFISH AND CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE
This course covers the principles and application of health and production management and practices of significant shellfish aquaculture species in Atlantic Canada, and crustacean aquaculture globally. Topics include the biology, production methods, diagnosis, treatment and management of production and disease problems, and aquatic ecosystem health. Field trips to aquaculture sites occur.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 Hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 1 Hour

VHM 826 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of board certified diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 8 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 827 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 828 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides more advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 831 TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to some advanced biostatistical techniques including survival analysis, factor analysis, and general linear models.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VHM 832 SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to advanced biostatistical techniques such as multilevel modelling, survival analysis, or Bayesian methodology
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
LECTURES: 1 hour

VHM 833 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO ANIMAL AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course will cover the concepts of quantitative risk analysis based on stochastic simulation, and its application
in a regulatory context for estimation of risk associated with live animal and animal food products. An introduction to qualitative risk analysis is included, contrasting the main advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. The course will introduce the concepts of scenario pathway modelling, probability distributions, statistical distributions applied in risk assessment, parameter estimation, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 3 hours

VHM 834 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
This introductory online course will cover the basic concepts of quantitative risk assessment applied to animal health and food safety. The course will introduce the following concepts: scenario-pathway modeling, food-processing models, probability distributions applied in risk assessment, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as a decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES (tutorials, videos and forum discussions): 2 hours/day
LABORATORIES (minor assignments and discussion forums): 1 hour/day
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 835  ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS I
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinary interns. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 836 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS II
This winter semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinarians undergoing advanced clinical training. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 837 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 841 BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in bovine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of cattle, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of cattle, and reproductive efficiency in cattle management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students participate in herd visits to dairy and beef farms and are involved in bovine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VHM 842 EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of horses, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of horses, and breeding management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students are also involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 843 EQUINE BREEDING FARM THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on theriogenology as practised on breeding farms. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques is provided. Students participate in visits to equine stud farms at the height of the breeding season and are involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 845 LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
The course involves advanced training in veterinary surgery with emphasis on food animal and equine general surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopaedic-related surgery, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and those examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree; permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours

VHM 846 EQUINE SURGERY AND LAMENESS
The course involves advanced training in equine surgery with emphasis on orthopedic and soft tissue surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopedic related surgery, lameness evaluation, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical or lameness cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital, and cases examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 848 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course provides training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds.  Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 849 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under the supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem- oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: VHM 848, DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 851 TOPICS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
This course reviews a selection of new developments in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition. Research papers in the discipline are critically evaluated.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
SEMINARS: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a small research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VHM 862 ADVANCED CLINICS IN FOOD ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in food animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 9 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and 3 weeks in the food animal medicine and surgery service at the University of Montreal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the farm services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a food animal clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 863 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE INTERNAL AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine internal and preventative medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 11 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and one week in equine dentistry. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the equine ambulatory services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat equine patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in- depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds, with at least one case emphasizing preventative medicine. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 864 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, and permission of the instructor.
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 865 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 864 and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR:  1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 866 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of an internal medicine MVSc- Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 865 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour

VHM 867 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 868 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 867, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 869 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 868, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 871 HERD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of Herd Health and Production Management programs, udder and foot health, control of infectious diseases, fertility, young stock rearing, and farm economics. Lab exercises include analysis of data of farms that are enrolled in the Herd Health and Production Management program of the Farm Service group of the AVC.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LECTURE/LAB: 5 hours

VHM 872 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE WELFARE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine welfare and preventive medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) Diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics emphasized in this course include application and understanding of the Equine Code of Practice, preventive medicine, infectious disease, dentistry and population/herd health. For this course, students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 873 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION I
This course provides training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Students are expected to be at entry level and will be working under direct supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, and will spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics include diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 874 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION II
This course provides more advanced training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Students are expected to work more independently  in performing diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 875 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the first year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 876 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the second year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 877 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the third year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITES:  DVM or equivalent and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VHM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc or MVSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VHM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Course Level: 
Path/Micro
Courses: 

PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 802 ADVANCES IN PROTOZOOLOGY 
This course is an in-depth study of recent advances in knowledge of the major protozoan parasites of animals. Lectures and seminars cover a variety of topics including developmental cycles, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiology of several protozoan diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 811 DISEASES OF CULTURED FISH
This course reviews fish culture systems and the diseases encountered in cultured fish. The lecture and laboratory course covers culture techniques for fin fish and shell fish and the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of fish diseases.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or BSc (Biology) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 812 RECENT ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to study in detail areas of immunology which reflect current interest or controversy. Major concepts in immunology are covered.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 821 CONCEPTS IN VIRAL PATHOGENESIS
This is an advanced course reviewing the mechanisms by which viruses cause disease. The emphasis is on general concepts and mechanisms. Selected viral infections are used to illustrate the general concepts of virus-host interaction.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 822 ADVANCES IN BACTERIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and molecular microbiology. Lectures and seminars will cover well-understood topics in these areas and will include the application of biotechnology for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate microbiology and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 823 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught necropsy techniques including how to examine animals submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the fall season are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 824 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the winter are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 825 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in spring and summer are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 826 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in a given season is emphasized and a more in-depth discussion of their pathogenesis is expected. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 823, VPM 824, or VPM 825 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 827 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, initial training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 828 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 833 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 834 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent during the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 835 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is provided initial training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the fall. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 836 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the winter. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 837 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the spring and summer. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 838 ADVANCED SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is provided a more advanced training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the second year of study. Morphologic  diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 835, VPM 836, or VPM 837 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 845 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
In this course students gain “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 846 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY II
In this course students gain additional “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 847 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY I
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. The student is required satisfactorily to complete about 60 cases. In weekly discussions, special emphasis is also placed on understanding approaches to the diagnosis of viral diseases, sterilization, disinfection and biosafety, sterile technique in collection of specimens, and processing, packaging and shipment of specimens for virus diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LABORATORY: 5 hours
SEMINAR: 0.5
TUTORIAL: 0.5

VPM 848 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY II
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. Tutorials utilize selected clinical cases to familiarize the student with the interpretation of laboratory test results. Current trends in diagnostic virology, serology and vaccinology are covered in group discussions on assigned readings in scientific literature.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 847 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIAL: 4 hours

VPM 849 DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOLOGY
This course covers a variety of immunodiagnostic techniques. Principles of serologic techniques and their application to disease diagnosis are discussed. The development of these techniques and their validation is covered in lecture and during laboratory sessions. Principles of immunohistological testing for both infectious diseases and for immunological diseases are discussed with relevant clinical examples, as are other immunochemical tests for immune-mediated disease.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 852 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES
In this two-semester course, the student is taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of disease in free-living and zoo mammals (land and marine) and birds. Participation in additional laboratory procedures is encouraged. The student is required to satisfactorily complete between 40 and 50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory, and brief comments on the significance of the disease diagnosed. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 3 hours

VPM 853 RESEARCH PROJECT (Grad. Dip Program)
Each student in the Diploma program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study in the student’s principal area of interest.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 854 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES I
In this introductory course, students are taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of diseases in free- living wild animals (mammals, birds, and occasional reptiles and amphibians) submitted for post-mortem examination. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases and their management implications are emphasized. Students are also encouraged to review collections of gross and histopathological slides of common wildlife diseases in the region and elsewhere.

VPM 855 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population. The student is also encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources, subject to approval by the instructor.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 854

VPM 856 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES III
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with increasingly independent work performance (necropsy, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 854 and VPM 855

VPM 857 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES IV
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with a high degree of independent work performance (necropsy, analysis and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are required to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 853, 854 and 856

VPM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT  (MVSc PROGRAM)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project in the second year of study. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6
LAB/SEMINARS: 12 hours

VPM 862 CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of cellular pathology. Lectures and seminars centre around a variety of topics including immunopathology, inflammation, healing disorders of cell growth, cell degeneration and cell necrosis. Both mammalian and ectothermic aquatic animal systems are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of Course Coordinator.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 863 ADVANCED RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in veterinary and comparative respiratory pathology, with emphasis on mechanisms of disease. This advanced course provides residents and graduate students with an in-depth understanding of the respiratory defence mechanism, host response to injury, inflammation, pathogenesis of diseases and animal models of human disease. The course consists of formal lectures and independent work by the graduate students describing microscopic lesions (histopathology). Two seminars will be presented by the graduate student.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission by the instructor
LECTURES:  2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS:  2 hours
TUTORIALS:  2
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VPM 871 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA research and their application to the genetic analysis of animal viruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance. Students learn the principles and practical aspects of molecular biology techniques through lectures (2 hrs./wk), and hands-on-experience (6 hrs.+/wk). Emphasis is placed on the following topics: techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, hybridization methods, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, gene expression, and PCR technology.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 6 hours

VPM 872 ADVANCED HELMINTHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of helminth taxonomy/morphology and recent advances in knowledge of the major helminth parasites of wild and domestic animals. Identification of helminth parasites recovered at necropsy and on histologic sections is taught through lecture and laboratories. Additional lecture/laboratory topics include field and laboratory techniques used in the study of helminth infections and recent advances in disease pathogenesis, life cycle transmission, diagnostic procedures and immunology of helminth parasites.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VPM 885 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 322/ BIO 322, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student's research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-listed with CS 322, BIO 322, HB 885
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
Note:  No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 885, VPM 885, CS 322, and BIO 322

VPM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VPM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Calendar Courses

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 801 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
This laboratory-oriented course introduces students to the principles and procedures required for the examination of structures with the transmission electron microscope  (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the interpretation/analysis of ultrastructural features of cells and tissues.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 3 hours
LABORATORIES: 4 hours

VBS 803 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
This course provides graduate students in a biomedical field with general knowledge and principles of biomedical research. The lectures and tutorials cover topics like the scientific approach, experimental design, scientific writing, intellectual property, research ethics, preparing seminars, and grant writing. The laboratories focus on laboratory techniques that are useful in biomedical research.
LECTURES/TUTORIALS: 1-3 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3

VBS 817 CURRENT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course deals with advanced topics in Marine Biotechnology. Topics include: marine microbiology, natural products biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products, heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes, drug development, chemical ecology. The course will meet for three contact hours per week and will involve in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature.
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 241/242 OR 243 and permission of instructor; a course in biochemistry would be an asset but is not required.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB/TUTORIAL: 0
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 823 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to enhance student knowledge of the basic concepts in developmental biology. Early development of vertebrates is discussed with emphasis on experimental and molecular analysis of developmental mechanisms.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
TUTORIAL: 3 hours

VBS 824 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in developmental biology. Topics are selected from the recent literature according to student interests and may include embryonic induction, regulation of morphogenesis  and differentiation, mechanisms of regional specification and pattern formation.
PREREQUISITES: VBS 823 or permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 845 ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impacts assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments, environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer-reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students, and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
LECTURE/LAB: 3
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 852 INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE
This is a lecture/discussion course with supplemental laboratories and readings. Topics include introductions to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of mammalian systems including current concepts in neuronal processing and integration.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate anatomy, physiology and pharmacology or equivalent and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
TUTORIALS: 2 hours

VBS 863 PRINCIPLES OF CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
This advanced course on pharmacological principles is based on an understanding of cell physiology. The course covers membrane properties and principles of receptor function relevant to cell physiology and pharmacology and includes cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of drug actions. Students present and discuss weekly readings.
PREREQUISITES: Undergraduate biochemistry and physiology and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1 hour
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 876 BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides students with an understanding of the chemical and biochemical basis of toxicology. The principles of toxicology are the general focus of the course, but system specific aspects are covered with an emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. The course includes lectures, seminars and student presentations.
PREREQUISITES: A course on Cellular Basis of Physiology and Pharmacology or an undergraduate course in pharmacology or toxicology that is approved by the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1.5 hours
TUTORIAL: 1.5 hours

VBS 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VBS 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VBS 892 ADVANCES IN FISH PHYSIOLOGY
This is an advanced course covering a range of selected topics on fish form and function. Interaction of fish with their ecosystems is emphasized. Students are actively involved by presenting and discussing readings provided weekly. Each student presents a formal seminar on a selected topic at the conclusion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in animal physiology (i.e. Bio 402 or VBS 121 and 122, or equivalent) and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour

VBS 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

COMPANION ANIMALS COURSES

VCA 811 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF URINARY, ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC/ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary, endocrine and metabolic/electrolyte disorders of companion animals. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 812 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides initial training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal medicine faculty and have close supervision when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 813 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides further training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and will consult often with small animal medicine faculty. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 814 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 815 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 816 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery, including the pathophysiology of advanced musculoskeletal diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical treatments. Topics include fracture management, juvenile orthopaedic disease, osteoarthritis and management, joint replacement, ligament and tendon injuries, immune mediated muscular and joint diseases, orthopaedic surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in orthopaedic implants. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 817 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND REHABILITATION
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in pathophysiology of advanced neurologic diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical and conservative treatment of these conditions. Topics include spinal fracture management, intervertebral disc disease, intracranial disease, immune mediated and infectious neurological diseases, neurological surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in neurosurgery. Students also discuss techniques and current theory regarding rehabilitation of neurologic animals and animals with musculoskeletal disease. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 818 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE CARDIOTHORACIC SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical management of diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity. Topics include pathophysiology of surgical diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity; advanced surgical techniques to treat these diseases; and post-operative care and prognosis. Diseases covered include patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary neoplasia, thoracic wall neoplasia and trauma, brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and tracheal collapse. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 819 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the urogenital system and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include pre-operative management of patients with renal insufficiency, and indications and surgical methods for diseases involving the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male and female reproductive systems. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the urogenital system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 821 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AND CRITICAL CARE
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders of companion animals. Issues in critical care medicine are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 822 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal and endocrine systems and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include gastric dilation volvulus; intestinal and gastric foreign bodies; intestinal and gastric neoplasia; persistent right aortic arch; abdominal wall and diaphragmatic hernias; diseases of the liver and gallbladder; diseases of the colon, thyroid, and parathyroid; and adrenal disease. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the gastrointestinal system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 823 ADVANCED SURGICAL BIOLOGY, WOUND MANAGEMENT, AND EAR DISEASE
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical pathophysiology of wounds and ear diseases, as well as advanced concepts regarding biomaterials, asepsis, and critical care for trauma and post-operative patients. Topics include wound healing and grafting, methods of sterilization and pathophysiology of shock, use of blood transfusion medicine antibiotics in surgical patients, and general surgical techniques. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 824 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF NEUROMUSCULAR, JOINT, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS AND ONCOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular, joint, hematopoietic, and immune mediated disorders of companion animals. Issues in medical oncology are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management, are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE:  Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology, and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 825 COMPANION ANIMAL ANESTHESIA, RADIOLOGY, & CARDIOLOGY
This course provides advanced training in companion animal anesthesiology, radiology, and cardiology and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVAA, ACVR, ACVIM - cardiology), students spend 4 weeks in companion animal clinical anesthesia, radiology, and cardiology at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures (e.g. radiography) interpret diagnostic tests, and anesthetize companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include radiographic and anesthetic techniques, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathophysiology etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  1

VCA 826 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 8 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 827 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 828  COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 829 COMPANION ANIMAL TRIAGE AND EMERGENCY CARE
This course provides training in companion animal triage and emergency care and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, AVCAA, ACVR), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal triage services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients in need of emergency and critical care. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 831 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF GASTROINTESTINAL  HEPATOBILIARY PANCREATIC AND INFECTIOUS DISORDERS AND NUTRITION
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and infectious disorders of companion animals. Issues in nutritional management of disease are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 832 ADVANCED COMPANION ANIMAL TOPICS 
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and radiology at a level appropriate for interns. The course meets two times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in companion animal medicine, surgery and radiology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 833 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT 
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 841 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY I: APPLIED  PHYSIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neuromuscular physiology, as well as body fluid composition and haemostasis. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems and relates these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 842 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY II: APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives, analgesics, injectable and inhalant anaesthetics, local anaesthetics, and muscle relaxants, as well as autonomic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs and relate these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 843 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY III: CLINICAL ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the anaesthetic management of patients with disease of different body systems, as well as selected patients and procedures. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pathophysiology of different disease processes in both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 844 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides initial training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will observe, perform, and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of examinations with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.  Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of routine radiographic small, large, and exotic imaging studies; proper dictation techniques, ultrasonographic applications, techniques, and interpretation principles; radiation safety. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 845 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will perform and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. This course also serves as an introduction to Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy. Students will observe, perform, and dictate studies in these modalities. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of all modalities with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.   Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy; proper dictation techniques, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy applications, techniques and interpretation principles; imaging artifacts, special procedures. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 846 ALTERNATIVE IMAGING - TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
This course is a detailed study of alternative imaging techniques used in veterinary medicine. Topics included: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Scintigraphy to include methods of image formation and display, imaging principles, with particular emphasis given to clinical applications (indications, equipment/instrumentation, common artifacts, scanning protocols, principles of interpretation, and appearance of various diseases with the various modalities).
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 851 ANATOMY AND PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This course will provide the student with an in-depth review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and cross-sectional anatomy, as well as basic physics uses in diagnostic imaging. Topics presented include: current anatomic nomenclature, radiographic anatomy of the axial and appendicular musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, as well as athrology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. All of the aforementioned topics will be in regards to radiographic, sonographic, and cross-sectional anatomy. Production and physical properties of X-rays, equipment and accessories, darkroom, computed and digital radiography, radiographic quality, artifacts, and technique chart formation.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in anatomy and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 852 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations with guidance from faculty as needed. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: interpretation of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality.  Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844 and 845
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 853 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations.  The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: in-depth discussions of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 852.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 854 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING - SPECIAL PROCEDURES
This course will provide the student with alternative imaging methods and diagnostic tests that may complement or supercede plain film radiography. Indications, contra- indications, technical aspects, standard imaging protocols (including positioning), and principles of interpretation of various imaging studies will be presented. Specific topics presented include: contrast media, esophagography, upper GI series, gastrography, colonography, excretory urography, cystography, urethrography, vaginourethrography, myelography, angiocardiography, venography, lymphangiography, valvuloplasty, valvular embolization techniques, arthrography, fistulography, stress radiography, peritoneography, and stress radiographic techniques.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 855 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, RADIATION BIOLOGY, SAFETY AND ARTIFACTS
This course provides a detailed study of physiology/pathophysiology as it relates to various veterinary diseases, as well as an introduction to radiation biology, safety, and artifacts.  Specific topics include: Physiology and pathophysiology of specific organ systems: Alimentary, cardiovascular, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, urogenital system, endocrine system. Radiation biology, oncology/tumor biology, radiation monitoring, and radiation protection.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc Program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VCA 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VCA 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

 

HEALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 801 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VHM 802 ADVANCED VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course covers linear and logistic models, i.e. multiple linear and logistic regression and analysis of variance procedures for analysis of continuous and dichotomous outcomes with respect to multiple factors or explanatory variables. In addition, the course gives an introduction to experimental design and to analysis of data from complex experimental designs with multiple levels of variation or repeated measurements. The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 812.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours

VHM 811 EPIDEMIOLOGY I
This course provides students with an understanding of epidemiologic principles and methods with an emphasis on the concepts used in population health research. Specific topics covered include observational study design, sampling, measures of disease frequency, measures of association, validity (bias), confounding and stratified analyzes, screening tests and the design of clinical trials.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES / SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 812 EPIDEMIOLOGY II
This course provides students with a more detailed understanding of epidemiologic study design principles and a working knowledge of many multivariable statistical methods used in epidemiologic research. Specific topics covered include: linear regression, logistic regression, Poisson models, analysis of survival data, design of observational studies and validity (bias). The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 802.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: Four
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 822 POPULATION MEDICINE IN AQUACULTURE
This course covers current developments in finfish, crustacean and bivalve clinical health management with a particular focus on the epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious production problems. The lecture and seminar course topics include disease surveillance, diagnostic test evaluation, investigation of causal factors and evaluating health management practices. Field trips to aquaculture sites in the Atlantic Canada region are necessary.
PREREQUISITE: DVM, VPM 811 (or equivalent) and VHM 811 and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VHM 823 HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SHELLFISH AND CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE
This course covers the principles and application of health and production management and practices of significant shellfish aquaculture species in Atlantic Canada, and crustacean aquaculture globally. Topics include the biology, production methods, diagnosis, treatment and management of production and disease problems, and aquatic ecosystem health. Field trips to aquaculture sites occur.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 Hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 1 Hour

VHM 826 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of board certified diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 8 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 827 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 828 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides more advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 831 TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to some advanced biostatistical techniques including survival analysis, factor analysis, and general linear models.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VHM 832 SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to advanced biostatistical techniques such as multilevel modelling, survival analysis, or Bayesian methodology
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
LECTURES: 1 hour

VHM 833 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO ANIMAL AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course will cover the concepts of quantitative risk analysis based on stochastic simulation, and its application
in a regulatory context for estimation of risk associated with live animal and animal food products. An introduction to qualitative risk analysis is included, contrasting the main advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. The course will introduce the concepts of scenario pathway modelling, probability distributions, statistical distributions applied in risk assessment, parameter estimation, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 3 hours

VHM 834 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
This introductory online course will cover the basic concepts of quantitative risk assessment applied to animal health and food safety. The course will introduce the following concepts: scenario-pathway modeling, food-processing models, probability distributions applied in risk assessment, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as a decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES (tutorials, videos and forum discussions): 2 hours/day
LABORATORIES (minor assignments and discussion forums): 1 hour/day
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 835  ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS I
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinary interns. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 836 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS II
This winter semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinarians undergoing advanced clinical training. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 837 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 841 BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in bovine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of cattle, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of cattle, and reproductive efficiency in cattle management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students participate in herd visits to dairy and beef farms and are involved in bovine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VHM 842 EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of horses, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of horses, and breeding management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students are also involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 843 EQUINE BREEDING FARM THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on theriogenology as practised on breeding farms. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques is provided. Students participate in visits to equine stud farms at the height of the breeding season and are involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 845 LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
The course involves advanced training in veterinary surgery with emphasis on food animal and equine general surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopaedic-related surgery, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and those examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree; permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours

VHM 846 EQUINE SURGERY AND LAMENESS
The course involves advanced training in equine surgery with emphasis on orthopedic and soft tissue surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopedic related surgery, lameness evaluation, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical or lameness cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital, and cases examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 848 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course provides training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds.  Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 849 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under the supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem- oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: VHM 848, DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 851 TOPICS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
This course reviews a selection of new developments in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition. Research papers in the discipline are critically evaluated.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
SEMINARS: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a small research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VHM 862 ADVANCED CLINICS IN FOOD ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in food animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 9 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and 3 weeks in the food animal medicine and surgery service at the University of Montreal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the farm services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a food animal clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 863 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE INTERNAL AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine internal and preventative medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 11 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and one week in equine dentistry. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the equine ambulatory services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat equine patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in- depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds, with at least one case emphasizing preventative medicine. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 864 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, and permission of the instructor.
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 865 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 864 and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR:  1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 866 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of an internal medicine MVSc- Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 865 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour

VHM 867 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 868 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 867, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 869 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 868, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 871 HERD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of Herd Health and Production Management programs, udder and foot health, control of infectious diseases, fertility, young stock rearing, and farm economics. Lab exercises include analysis of data of farms that are enrolled in the Herd Health and Production Management program of the Farm Service group of the AVC.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LECTURE/LAB: 5 hours

VHM 872 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE WELFARE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine welfare and preventive medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) Diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics emphasized in this course include application and understanding of the Equine Code of Practice, preventive medicine, infectious disease, dentistry and population/herd health. For this course, students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 873 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION I
This course provides training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Students are expected to be at entry level and will be working under direct supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, and will spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics include diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 874 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION II
This course provides more advanced training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Students are expected to work more independently  in performing diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 875 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the first year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 876 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the second year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 877 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the third year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITES:  DVM or equivalent and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VHM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc or MVSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VHM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 802 ADVANCES IN PROTOZOOLOGY 
This course is an in-depth study of recent advances in knowledge of the major protozoan parasites of animals. Lectures and seminars cover a variety of topics including developmental cycles, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiology of several protozoan diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 811 DISEASES OF CULTURED FISH
This course reviews fish culture systems and the diseases encountered in cultured fish. The lecture and laboratory course covers culture techniques for fin fish and shell fish and the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of fish diseases.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or BSc (Biology) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 812 RECENT ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to study in detail areas of immunology which reflect current interest or controversy. Major concepts in immunology are covered.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 821 CONCEPTS IN VIRAL PATHOGENESIS
This is an advanced course reviewing the mechanisms by which viruses cause disease. The emphasis is on general concepts and mechanisms. Selected viral infections are used to illustrate the general concepts of virus-host interaction.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 822 ADVANCES IN BACTERIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and molecular microbiology. Lectures and seminars will cover well-understood topics in these areas and will include the application of biotechnology for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate microbiology and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 823 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught necropsy techniques including how to examine animals submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the fall season are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 824 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the winter are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 825 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in spring and summer are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 826 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in a given season is emphasized and a more in-depth discussion of their pathogenesis is expected. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 823, VPM 824, or VPM 825 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 827 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, initial training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 828 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 833 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 834 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent during the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 835 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is provided initial training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the fall. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 836 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the winter. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 837 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the spring and summer. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 838 ADVANCED SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is provided a more advanced training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the second year of study. Morphologic  diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 835, VPM 836, or VPM 837 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 845 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
In this course students gain “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 846 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY II
In this course students gain additional “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 847 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY I
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. The student is required satisfactorily to complete about 60 cases. In weekly discussions, special emphasis is also placed on understanding approaches to the diagnosis of viral diseases, sterilization, disinfection and biosafety, sterile technique in collection of specimens, and processing, packaging and shipment of specimens for virus diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LABORATORY: 5 hours
SEMINAR: 0.5
TUTORIAL: 0.5

VPM 848 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY II
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. Tutorials utilize selected clinical cases to familiarize the student with the interpretation of laboratory test results. Current trends in diagnostic virology, serology and vaccinology are covered in group discussions on assigned readings in scientific literature.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 847 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIAL: 4 hours

VPM 849 DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOLOGY
This course covers a variety of immunodiagnostic techniques. Principles of serologic techniques and their application to disease diagnosis are discussed. The development of these techniques and their validation is covered in lecture and during laboratory sessions. Principles of immunohistological testing for both infectious diseases and for immunological diseases are discussed with relevant clinical examples, as are other immunochemical tests for immune-mediated disease.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 852 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES
In this two-semester course, the student is taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of disease in free-living and zoo mammals (land and marine) and birds. Participation in additional laboratory procedures is encouraged. The student is required to satisfactorily complete between 40 and 50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory, and brief comments on the significance of the disease diagnosed. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 3 hours

VPM 853 RESEARCH PROJECT (Grad. Dip Program)
Each student in the Diploma program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study in the student’s principal area of interest.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 854 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES I
In this introductory course, students are taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of diseases in free- living wild animals (mammals, birds, and occasional reptiles and amphibians) submitted for post-mortem examination. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases and their management implications are emphasized. Students are also encouraged to review collections of gross and histopathological slides of common wildlife diseases in the region and elsewhere.

VPM 855 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population. The student is also encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources, subject to approval by the instructor.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 854

VPM 856 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES III
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with increasingly independent work performance (necropsy, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 854 and VPM 855

VPM 857 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES IV
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with a high degree of independent work performance (necropsy, analysis and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are required to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 853, 854 and 856

VPM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT  (MVSc PROGRAM)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project in the second year of study. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6
LAB/SEMINARS: 12 hours

VPM 862 CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of cellular pathology. Lectures and seminars centre around a variety of topics including immunopathology, inflammation, healing disorders of cell growth, cell degeneration and cell necrosis. Both mammalian and ectothermic aquatic animal systems are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of Course Coordinator.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 863 ADVANCED RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in veterinary and comparative respiratory pathology, with emphasis on mechanisms of disease. This advanced course provides residents and graduate students with an in-depth understanding of the respiratory defence mechanism, host response to injury, inflammation, pathogenesis of diseases and animal models of human disease. The course consists of formal lectures and independent work by the graduate students describing microscopic lesions (histopathology). Two seminars will be presented by the graduate student.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission by the instructor
LECTURES:  2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS:  2 hours
TUTORIALS:  2
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VPM 871 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA research and their application to the genetic analysis of animal viruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance. Students learn the principles and practical aspects of molecular biology techniques through lectures (2 hrs./wk), and hands-on-experience (6 hrs.+/wk). Emphasis is placed on the following topics: techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, hybridization methods, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, gene expression, and PCR technology.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 6 hours

VPM 872 ADVANCED HELMINTHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of helminth taxonomy/morphology and recent advances in knowledge of the major helminth parasites of wild and domestic animals. Identification of helminth parasites recovered at necropsy and on histologic sections is taught through lecture and laboratories. Additional lecture/laboratory topics include field and laboratory techniques used in the study of helminth infections and recent advances in disease pathogenesis, life cycle transmission, diagnostic procedures and immunology of helminth parasites.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VPM 885 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 322/ BIO 322, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student's research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-listed with CS 322, BIO 322, HB 885
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
Note:  No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 885, VPM 885, CS 322, and BIO 322

VPM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VPM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Calendar Courses

Biomedical Sciences

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 801 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
This laboratory-oriented course introduces students to the principles and procedures required for the examination of structures with the transmission electron microscope  (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the interpretation/analysis of ultrastructural features of cells and tissues.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 3 hours
LABORATORIES: 4 hours

VBS 803 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
This course provides graduate students in a biomedical field with general knowledge and principles of biomedical research. The lectures and tutorials cover topics like the scientific approach, experimental design, scientific writing, intellectual property, research ethics, preparing seminars, and grant writing. The laboratories focus on laboratory techniques that are useful in biomedical research.
LECTURES/TUTORIALS: 1-3 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3

VBS 817 CURRENT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course deals with advanced topics in Marine Biotechnology. Topics include: marine microbiology, natural products biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products, heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes, drug development, chemical ecology. The course will meet for three contact hours per week and will involve in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature.
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 241/242 OR 243 and permission of instructor; a course in biochemistry would be an asset but is not required.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB/TUTORIAL: 0
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 823 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to enhance student knowledge of the basic concepts in developmental biology. Early development of vertebrates is discussed with emphasis on experimental and molecular analysis of developmental mechanisms.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
TUTORIAL: 3 hours

VBS 824 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in developmental biology. Topics are selected from the recent literature according to student interests and may include embryonic induction, regulation of morphogenesis  and differentiation, mechanisms of regional specification and pattern formation.
PREREQUISITES: VBS 823 or permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 845 ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impacts assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments, environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer-reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students, and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
LECTURE/LAB: 3
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 852 INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE
This is a lecture/discussion course with supplemental laboratories and readings. Topics include introductions to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of mammalian systems including current concepts in neuronal processing and integration.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate anatomy, physiology and pharmacology or equivalent and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
TUTORIALS: 2 hours

VBS 863 PRINCIPLES OF CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
This advanced course on pharmacological principles is based on an understanding of cell physiology. The course covers membrane properties and principles of receptor function relevant to cell physiology and pharmacology and includes cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of drug actions. Students present and discuss weekly readings.
PREREQUISITES: Undergraduate biochemistry and physiology and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1 hour
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 876 BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides students with an understanding of the chemical and biochemical basis of toxicology. The principles of toxicology are the general focus of the course, but system specific aspects are covered with an emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. The course includes lectures, seminars and student presentations.
PREREQUISITES: A course on Cellular Basis of Physiology and Pharmacology or an undergraduate course in pharmacology or toxicology that is approved by the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1.5 hours
TUTORIAL: 1.5 hours

VBS 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VBS 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VBS 892 ADVANCES IN FISH PHYSIOLOGY
This is an advanced course covering a range of selected topics on fish form and function. Interaction of fish with their ecosystems is emphasized. Students are actively involved by presenting and discussing readings provided weekly. Each student presents a formal seminar on a selected topic at the conclusion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in animal physiology (i.e. Bio 402 or VBS 121 and 122, or equivalent) and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour

VBS 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Companion Animals

COMPANION ANIMALS COURSES

VCA 811 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF URINARY, ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC/ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary, endocrine and metabolic/electrolyte disorders of companion animals. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 812 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides initial training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal medicine faculty and have close supervision when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 813 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides further training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and will consult often with small animal medicine faculty. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 814 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 815 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 816 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery, including the pathophysiology of advanced musculoskeletal diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical treatments. Topics include fracture management, juvenile orthopaedic disease, osteoarthritis and management, joint replacement, ligament and tendon injuries, immune mediated muscular and joint diseases, orthopaedic surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in orthopaedic implants. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 817 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND REHABILITATION
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in pathophysiology of advanced neurologic diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical and conservative treatment of these conditions. Topics include spinal fracture management, intervertebral disc disease, intracranial disease, immune mediated and infectious neurological diseases, neurological surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in neurosurgery. Students also discuss techniques and current theory regarding rehabilitation of neurologic animals and animals with musculoskeletal disease. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 818 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE CARDIOTHORACIC SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical management of diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity. Topics include pathophysiology of surgical diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity; advanced surgical techniques to treat these diseases; and post-operative care and prognosis. Diseases covered include patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary neoplasia, thoracic wall neoplasia and trauma, brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and tracheal collapse. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 819 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the urogenital system and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include pre-operative management of patients with renal insufficiency, and indications and surgical methods for diseases involving the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male and female reproductive systems. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the urogenital system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 821 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AND CRITICAL CARE
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders of companion animals. Issues in critical care medicine are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 822 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal and endocrine systems and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include gastric dilation volvulus; intestinal and gastric foreign bodies; intestinal and gastric neoplasia; persistent right aortic arch; abdominal wall and diaphragmatic hernias; diseases of the liver and gallbladder; diseases of the colon, thyroid, and parathyroid; and adrenal disease. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the gastrointestinal system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 823 ADVANCED SURGICAL BIOLOGY, WOUND MANAGEMENT, AND EAR DISEASE
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical pathophysiology of wounds and ear diseases, as well as advanced concepts regarding biomaterials, asepsis, and critical care for trauma and post-operative patients. Topics include wound healing and grafting, methods of sterilization and pathophysiology of shock, use of blood transfusion medicine antibiotics in surgical patients, and general surgical techniques. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 824 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF NEUROMUSCULAR, JOINT, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS AND ONCOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular, joint, hematopoietic, and immune mediated disorders of companion animals. Issues in medical oncology are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management, are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE:  Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology, and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2
LECTURES:  2 hours

VCA 825 COMPANION ANIMAL ANESTHESIA, RADIOLOGY, & CARDIOLOGY
This course provides advanced training in companion animal anesthesiology, radiology, and cardiology and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVAA, ACVR, ACVIM - cardiology), students spend 4 weeks in companion animal clinical anesthesia, radiology, and cardiology at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures (e.g. radiography) interpret diagnostic tests, and anesthetize companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include radiographic and anesthetic techniques, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathophysiology etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  1

VCA 826 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 8 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 827 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 828  COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VCA 829 COMPANION ANIMAL TRIAGE AND EMERGENCY CARE
This course provides training in companion animal triage and emergency care and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, AVCAA, ACVR), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal triage services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients in need of emergency and critical care. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 831 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF GASTROINTESTINAL  HEPATOBILIARY PANCREATIC AND INFECTIOUS DISORDERS AND NUTRITION
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and infectious disorders of companion animals. Issues in nutritional management of disease are included.  Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 832 ADVANCED COMPANION ANIMAL TOPICS 
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and radiology at a level appropriate for interns. The course meets two times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in companion animal medicine, surgery and radiology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 833 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT 
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VCA 841 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY I: APPLIED  PHYSIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neuromuscular physiology, as well as body fluid composition and haemostasis. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems and relates these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 842 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY II: APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives, analgesics, injectable and inhalant anaesthetics, local anaesthetics, and muscle relaxants, as well as autonomic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs and relate these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using video conference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 843 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY III: CLINICAL ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the anaesthetic management of patients with disease of different body systems, as well as selected patients and procedures. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pathophysiology of different disease processes in both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 844 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides initial training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will observe, perform, and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of examinations with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.  Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of routine radiographic small, large, and exotic imaging studies; proper dictation techniques, ultrasonographic applications, techniques, and interpretation principles; radiation safety. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 845 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will perform and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. This course also serves as an introduction to Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy. Students will observe, perform, and dictate studies in these modalities. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of all modalities with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty.   Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy; proper dictation techniques, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy applications, techniques and interpretation principles; imaging artifacts, special procedures. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 846 ALTERNATIVE IMAGING - TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
This course is a detailed study of alternative imaging techniques used in veterinary medicine. Topics included: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Scintigraphy to include methods of image formation and display, imaging principles, with particular emphasis given to clinical applications (indications, equipment/instrumentation, common artifacts, scanning protocols, principles of interpretation, and appearance of various diseases with the various modalities).
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 851 ANATOMY AND PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This course will provide the student with an in-depth review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and cross-sectional anatomy, as well as basic physics uses in diagnostic imaging. Topics presented include: current anatomic nomenclature, radiographic anatomy of the axial and appendicular musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, as well as athrology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. All of the aforementioned topics will be in regards to radiographic, sonographic, and cross-sectional anatomy. Production and physical properties of X-rays, equipment and accessories, darkroom, computed and digital radiography, radiographic quality, artifacts, and technique chart formation.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in anatomy and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 852 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations with guidance from faculty as needed. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: interpretation of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality.  Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 844 and 845
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 853 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations.  The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: in-depth discussions of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 852.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 854 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING - SPECIAL PROCEDURES
This course will provide the student with alternative imaging methods and diagnostic tests that may complement or supercede plain film radiography. Indications, contra- indications, technical aspects, standard imaging protocols (including positioning), and principles of interpretation of various imaging studies will be presented. Specific topics presented include: contrast media, esophagography, upper GI series, gastrography, colonography, excretory urography, cystography, urethrography, vaginourethrography, myelography, angiocardiography, venography, lymphangiography, valvuloplasty, valvular embolization techniques, arthrography, fistulography, stress radiography, peritoneography, and stress radiographic techniques.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 855 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, RADIATION BIOLOGY, SAFETY AND ARTIFACTS
This course provides a detailed study of physiology/pathophysiology as it relates to various veterinary diseases, as well as an introduction to radiation biology, safety, and artifacts.  Specific topics include: Physiology and pathophysiology of specific organ systems: Alimentary, cardiovascular, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, urogenital system, endocrine system. Radiation biology, oncology/tumor biology, radiation monitoring, and radiation protection.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc Program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VCA 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VCA 890 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

 

Health Management

HEALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 801 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VHM 802 ADVANCED VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course covers linear and logistic models, i.e. multiple linear and logistic regression and analysis of variance procedures for analysis of continuous and dichotomous outcomes with respect to multiple factors or explanatory variables. In addition, the course gives an introduction to experimental design and to analysis of data from complex experimental designs with multiple levels of variation or repeated measurements. The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 812.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours

VHM 811 EPIDEMIOLOGY I
This course provides students with an understanding of epidemiologic principles and methods with an emphasis on the concepts used in population health research. Specific topics covered include observational study design, sampling, measures of disease frequency, measures of association, validity (bias), confounding and stratified analyzes, screening tests and the design of clinical trials.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES / SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 812 EPIDEMIOLOGY II
This course provides students with a more detailed understanding of epidemiologic study design principles and a working knowledge of many multivariable statistical methods used in epidemiologic research. Specific topics covered include: linear regression, logistic regression, Poisson models, analysis of survival data, design of observational studies and validity (bias). The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 802.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the Instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: Four
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 822 POPULATION MEDICINE IN AQUACULTURE
This course covers current developments in finfish, crustacean and bivalve clinical health management with a particular focus on the epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious production problems. The lecture and seminar course topics include disease surveillance, diagnostic test evaluation, investigation of causal factors and evaluating health management practices. Field trips to aquaculture sites in the Atlantic Canada region are necessary.
PREREQUISITE: DVM, VPM 811 (or equivalent) and VHM 811 and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VHM 823 HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SHELLFISH AND CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE
This course covers the principles and application of health and production management and practices of significant shellfish aquaculture species in Atlantic Canada, and crustacean aquaculture globally. Topics include the biology, production methods, diagnosis, treatment and management of production and disease problems, and aquatic ecosystem health. Field trips to aquaculture sites occur.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 Hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 1 Hour

VHM 826 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of board certified diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 8 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 827 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 828 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides more advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc.  Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 831 TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to some advanced biostatistical techniques including survival analysis, factor analysis, and general linear models.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VHM 832 SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to advanced biostatistical techniques such as multilevel modelling, survival analysis, or Bayesian methodology
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801 or VHM 802 (preferred) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
LECTURES: 1 hour

VHM 833 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO ANIMAL AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course will cover the concepts of quantitative risk analysis based on stochastic simulation, and its application
in a regulatory context for estimation of risk associated with live animal and animal food products. An introduction to qualitative risk analysis is included, contrasting the main advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. The course will introduce the concepts of scenario pathway modelling, probability distributions, statistical distributions applied in risk assessment, parameter estimation, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 3 hours

VHM 834 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
This introductory online course will cover the basic concepts of quantitative risk assessment applied to animal health and food safety. The course will introduce the following concepts: scenario-pathway modeling, food-processing models, probability distributions applied in risk assessment, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as a decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 801, VHM 811 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES (tutorials, videos and forum discussions): 2 hours/day
LABORATORIES (minor assignments and discussion forums): 1 hour/day
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 835  ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS I
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinary interns. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 836 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS II
This winter semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinarians undergoing advanced clinical training. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions.  Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 837 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 841 BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in bovine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of cattle, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of cattle, and reproductive efficiency in cattle management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students participate in herd visits to dairy and beef farms and are involved in bovine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VHM 842 EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of horses, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of horses, and breeding management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students are also involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 843 EQUINE BREEDING FARM THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on theriogenology as practised on breeding farms. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques is provided. Students participate in visits to equine stud farms at the height of the breeding season and are involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 845 LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
The course involves advanced training in veterinary surgery with emphasis on food animal and equine general surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopaedic-related surgery, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and those examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree; permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours

VHM 846 EQUINE SURGERY AND LAMENESS
The course involves advanced training in equine surgery with emphasis on orthopedic and soft tissue surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopedic related surgery, lameness evaluation, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical or lameness cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital, and cases examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 848 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course provides training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds.  Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 849 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under the supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem- oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: VHM 848, DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3
LAB/SEMINAR:  6 hours

VHM 851 TOPICS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
This course reviews a selection of new developments in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition. Research papers in the discipline are critically evaluated.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
SEMINARS: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a small research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VHM 862 ADVANCED CLINICS IN FOOD ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in food animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 9 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and 3 weeks in the food animal medicine and surgery service at the University of Montreal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the farm services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a food animal clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 863 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE INTERNAL AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine internal and preventative medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 11 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and one week in equine dentistry. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the equine ambulatory services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat equine patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in- depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds, with at least one case emphasizing preventative medicine. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 864 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, and permission of the instructor.
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 865 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of an internal medicine MSc/ MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 864 and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR:  1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 866 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of an internal medicine MVSc- Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 865 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour

VHM 867 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 868 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 867, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 869 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent, VHM 868, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 871 HERD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of Herd Health and Production Management programs, udder and foot health, control of infectious diseases, fertility, young stock rearing, and farm economics. Lab exercises include analysis of data of farms that are enrolled in the Herd Health and Production Management program of the Farm Service group of the AVC.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LECTURE/LAB: 5 hours

VHM 872 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE WELFARE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine welfare and preventive medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) Diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics emphasized in this course include application and understanding of the Equine Code of Practice, preventive medicine, infectious disease, dentistry and population/herd health. For this course, students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 873 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION I
This course provides training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Students are expected to be at entry level and will be working under direct supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, and will spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics include diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 874 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION II
This course provides more advanced training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Students are expected to work more independently  in performing diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 875 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the first year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 876 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the second year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. 
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

VHM 877 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the third year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITES:  DVM or equivalent and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VHM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc or MVSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VHM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Path/Micro

PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 802 ADVANCES IN PROTOZOOLOGY 
This course is an in-depth study of recent advances in knowledge of the major protozoan parasites of animals. Lectures and seminars cover a variety of topics including developmental cycles, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiology of several protozoan diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 811 DISEASES OF CULTURED FISH
This course reviews fish culture systems and the diseases encountered in cultured fish. The lecture and laboratory course covers culture techniques for fin fish and shell fish and the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of fish diseases.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or BSc (Biology) and permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 812 RECENT ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to study in detail areas of immunology which reflect current interest or controversy. Major concepts in immunology are covered.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 821 CONCEPTS IN VIRAL PATHOGENESIS
This is an advanced course reviewing the mechanisms by which viruses cause disease. The emphasis is on general concepts and mechanisms. Selected viral infections are used to illustrate the general concepts of virus-host interaction.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 822 ADVANCES IN BACTERIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and molecular microbiology. Lectures and seminars will cover well-understood topics in these areas and will include the application of biotechnology for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate microbiology and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 823 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught necropsy techniques including how to examine animals submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the fall season are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 824 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the winter are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 825 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in spring and summer are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 826 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in a given season is emphasized and a more in-depth discussion of their pathogenesis is expected. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 823, VPM 824, or VPM 825 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 827 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, initial training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 828 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 833 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 834 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent during the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 827 & VPM 828, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 835 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is provided initial training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the fall. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 836 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the winter. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 837 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the spring and summer. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 838 ADVANCED SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is provided a more advanced training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the second year of study. Morphologic  diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 835, VPM 836, or VPM 837 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 845 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
In this course students gain “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 846 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY II
In this course students gain additional “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 847 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY I
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. The student is required satisfactorily to complete about 60 cases. In weekly discussions, special emphasis is also placed on understanding approaches to the diagnosis of viral diseases, sterilization, disinfection and biosafety, sterile technique in collection of specimens, and processing, packaging and shipment of specimens for virus diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LABORATORY: 5 hours
SEMINAR: 0.5
TUTORIAL: 0.5

VPM 848 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY II
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. Tutorials utilize selected clinical cases to familiarize the student with the interpretation of laboratory test results. Current trends in diagnostic virology, serology and vaccinology are covered in group discussions on assigned readings in scientific literature.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 847 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIAL: 4 hours

VPM 849 DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOLOGY
This course covers a variety of immunodiagnostic techniques. Principles of serologic techniques and their application to disease diagnosis are discussed. The development of these techniques and their validation is covered in lecture and during laboratory sessions. Principles of immunohistological testing for both infectious diseases and for immunological diseases are discussed with relevant clinical examples, as are other immunochemical tests for immune-mediated disease.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 852 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES
In this two-semester course, the student is taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of disease in free-living and zoo mammals (land and marine) and birds. Participation in additional laboratory procedures is encouraged. The student is required to satisfactorily complete between 40 and 50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory, and brief comments on the significance of the disease diagnosed. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 3 hours

VPM 853 RESEARCH PROJECT (Grad. Dip Program)
Each student in the Diploma program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study in the student’s principal area of interest.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 854 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES I
In this introductory course, students are taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of diseases in free- living wild animals (mammals, birds, and occasional reptiles and amphibians) submitted for post-mortem examination. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases and their management implications are emphasized. Students are also encouraged to review collections of gross and histopathological slides of common wildlife diseases in the region and elsewhere.

VPM 855 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population. The student is also encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources, subject to approval by the instructor.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 854

VPM 856 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES III
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with increasingly independent work performance (necropsy, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 854 and VPM 855

VPM 857 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES IV
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with a high degree of independent work performance (necropsy, analysis and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are required to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 853, 854 and 856

VPM 860 RESEARCH PROJECT  (MVSc PROGRAM)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project in the second year of study. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6
LAB/SEMINARS: 12 hours

VPM 862 CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of cellular pathology. Lectures and seminars centre around a variety of topics including immunopathology, inflammation, healing disorders of cell growth, cell degeneration and cell necrosis. Both mammalian and ectothermic aquatic animal systems are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of Course Coordinator.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 863 ADVANCED RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in veterinary and comparative respiratory pathology, with emphasis on mechanisms of disease. This advanced course provides residents and graduate students with an in-depth understanding of the respiratory defence mechanism, host response to injury, inflammation, pathogenesis of diseases and animal models of human disease. The course consists of formal lectures and independent work by the graduate students describing microscopic lesions (histopathology). Two seminars will be presented by the graduate student.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission by the instructor
LECTURES:  2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS:  2 hours
TUTORIALS:  2
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VPM 871 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA research and their application to the genetic analysis of animal viruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance. Students learn the principles and practical aspects of molecular biology techniques through lectures (2 hrs./wk), and hands-on-experience (6 hrs.+/wk). Emphasis is placed on the following topics: techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, hybridization methods, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, gene expression, and PCR technology.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 6 hours

VPM 872 ADVANCED HELMINTHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of helminth taxonomy/morphology and recent advances in knowledge of the major helminth parasites of wild and domestic animals. Identification of helminth parasites recovered at necropsy and on histologic sections is taught through lecture and laboratories. Additional lecture/laboratory topics include field and laboratory techniques used in the study of helminth infections and recent advances in disease pathogenesis, life cycle transmission, diagnostic procedures and immunology of helminth parasites.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 881-882 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VPM 885 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 322/ BIO 322, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student's research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-listed with CS 322, BIO 322, HB 885
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
Note:  No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 885, VPM 885, CS 322, and BIO 322

VPM 890 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VPM 990 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

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