Humans as political, psychological, and economic beings.

Economics

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  • Investment Manager
  • Fund Manager
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  • Economist
The department of Economics is located in SDU Main Building.
(902) 628-4353

Economics belongs to the branch of knowledge known as the "Social Sciences." The social sciences deal with both intergenerational and intra-generational interactions between human beings in a society.

Human activities can, of course, be studied from many different perspectives. We could look at humans as political, psychological, historical, or economic beings. A political scientist, for example, would analyze the political activities of the people while an economist would examine activities related to their livelihood. Human beings, in order to fulfil their innate desire for food and shelter, engage in activities that lead them to the production of goods such as food, clothing, and housing, as well as services. These acts of production and consumption to satisfy human wants form the very basis of the subject matter of Economics. Perhaps observing people engaged in this pursuit, Alfred Marshall defined economics as "a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life."

Since the ordinary business of life involves the use of limited natural and human-made resources (capital), people have always been interested in making the best possible use of these resources. This efficient use of resources has been the underlying theme in economics. Hence, the most succinct definition of economics would be that economics deals with the efficient utilization of scarce resources to satisfy human wants. Scarcity gives legitimacy to economics. If there is no scarcity, there is no economic problem.

The discipline of Economics is built upon two strands of theory: Microeconomic Theory and Macroeconomic Theory. Microeconomic deals with the study of individual units in an economy, such as consumers, producers, and the interaction of these units in a given market structure. Macroeconomic theory, on the other hand, deals with the economy as a whole. Here we analyze the problems related to unemployment, growth, inflation, and the balance of payments. Most of the other courses in Economics are applied courses which use the concepts of Microeconomic Theory and/ or Macroeconomic Theory. An understanding of the relationship between these two theory courses and other fields in economics is usually helpful in planning your selection of courses.

 

Want more information about Economics? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail:
Careers:
  • Investment Manager
  • Fund Manager
  • Market Researcher
  • Certified Financial Planner
  • Financial Analyst
  • Economist
The department of Economics is located in SDU Main Building.
(902) 628-4353

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to major in Economics must complete fifty- four semester hours in Economics and Mathematics according to the program described below. All courses are valued at three semester hours.

Economics

  • 101 - Introductory Microeconomics
  • 102 - Introductory Macroeconomics
  • 203 - Intermediate Microeconomics I
  • 204 - Intermediate Macroeconomics I
  • 305 - Intermediate Microeconomics II
  • 306 - Intermediate Macroeconomics II

One of: 

  • 307 (Formerly 231) - Mathematical Economics
  • 303 - Economic Methodology
  • 308 (Formerly 411) -  Introduction to Econometrics

PLUS:

  • Seven (7) additional elective courses in economics, at least three of which must be at the 300 or 400 level.

Mathematics

  • 111 Finite Mathematics
  • 112 Calculus for the Managerial, Social, and Life Sciences OR 191 and 192 – Single Variable Calculus I and II

Statistics

  • 221 - Introductory Statistics I OR Business 251 - Introduction to Management Science

Recommendation

Students planning to follow graduate studies in Economics are advised to plan their courses with the Department. Such students should include the following courses as part of their seven electives in Economics: 307 - Mathematical Economics and 308 - Econometrics as well as 403 - Advanced Microeconomics and 404 - Macroeconomics. The Department further recommends that students who wish to go on to graduate studies choose Mathematics 191 and Mathematics 192, rather than Mathematics 112, as a stronger base for additional Mathematics courses. Students should also consider including Mathematics 261 (Linear Algebra) in their program of studies.
 

Want more information about Economics? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail:
Careers:
  • Investment Manager
  • Fund Manager
  • Market Researcher
  • Certified Financial Planner
  • Financial Analyst
  • Economist
The department of Economics is located in SDU Main Building.
(902) 628-4353

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MINOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to minor in Economics must complete twenty-one semester hours in Economics distributed as follows: Economics 101 and 102, and five other courses including at least one of the intermediate theory courses (Economics 203 or 204). At least two courses at the 300 level or above. Students should plan their program in consultation with the Department.

NOTE: The offerings listed below are not necessarily available each year. At best it may be possible to offer certain courses every other year. The courses offered in the current year will be published so that students will have the exact information available.

Want more information about Economics? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail:
Careers:
  • Investment Manager
  • Fund Manager
  • Market Researcher
  • Certified Financial Planner
  • Financial Analyst
  • Economist
The department of Economics is located in SDU Main Building.
(902) 628-4353
  • P. Nagarajan, Professor Emeritus
  • J. Stevens, Assistant Professor, Chair
  • W. Rankaduwa, Professor
  • M.B. Ali, Associate Professor
  • J. Sentance, Associate Professor
  • Y. Jia, Assistant Professor
  • R. Morin Chasse, Assistant Professor
  • L. Clark, Adjunct Professor
Overview

Economics belongs to the branch of knowledge known as the "Social Sciences." The social sciences deal with both intergenerational and intra-generational interactions between human beings in a society.

Human activities can, of course, be studied from many different perspectives. We could look at humans as political, psychological, historical, or economic beings. A political scientist, for example, would analyze the political activities of the people while an economist would examine activities related to their livelihood. Human beings, in order to fulfil their innate desire for food and shelter, engage in activities that lead them to the production of goods such as food, clothing, and housing, as well as services. These acts of production and consumption to satisfy human wants form the very basis of the subject matter of Economics. Perhaps observing people engaged in this pursuit, Alfred Marshall defined economics as "a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life."

Since the ordinary business of life involves the use of limited natural and human-made resources (capital), people have always been interested in making the best possible use of these resources. This efficient use of resources has been the underlying theme in economics. Hence, the most succinct definition of economics would be that economics deals with the efficient utilization of scarce resources to satisfy human wants. Scarcity gives legitimacy to economics. If there is no scarcity, there is no economic problem.

The discipline of Economics is built upon two strands of theory: Microeconomic Theory and Macroeconomic Theory. Microeconomic deals with the study of individual units in an economy, such as consumers, producers, and the interaction of these units in a given market structure. Macroeconomic theory, on the other hand, deals with the economy as a whole. Here we analyze the problems related to unemployment, growth, inflation, and the balance of payments. Most of the other courses in Economics are applied courses which use the concepts of Microeconomic Theory and/ or Macroeconomic Theory. An understanding of the relationship between these two theory courses and other fields in economics is usually helpful in planning your selection of courses.

 

Major

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to major in Economics must complete fifty- four semester hours in Economics and Mathematics according to the program described below. All courses are valued at three semester hours.

Economics

  • 101 - Introductory Microeconomics
  • 102 - Introductory Macroeconomics
  • 203 - Intermediate Microeconomics I
  • 204 - Intermediate Macroeconomics I
  • 305 - Intermediate Microeconomics II
  • 306 - Intermediate Macroeconomics II

One of: 

  • 307 (Formerly 231) - Mathematical Economics
  • 303 - Economic Methodology
  • 308 (Formerly 411) -  Introduction to Econometrics

PLUS:

  • Seven (7) additional elective courses in economics, at least three of which must be at the 300 or 400 level.

Mathematics

  • 111 Finite Mathematics
  • 112 Calculus for the Managerial, Social, and Life Sciences OR 191 and 192 – Single Variable Calculus I and II

Statistics

  • 221 - Introductory Statistics I OR Business 251 - Introduction to Management Science

Recommendation

Students planning to follow graduate studies in Economics are advised to plan their courses with the Department. Such students should include the following courses as part of their seven electives in Economics: 307 - Mathematical Economics and 308 - Econometrics as well as 403 - Advanced Microeconomics and 404 - Macroeconomics. The Department further recommends that students who wish to go on to graduate studies choose Mathematics 191 and Mathematics 192, rather than Mathematics 112, as a stronger base for additional Mathematics courses. Students should also consider including Mathematics 261 (Linear Algebra) in their program of studies.
 

Minor

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MINOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to minor in Economics must complete twenty-one semester hours in Economics distributed as follows: Economics 101 and 102, and five other courses including at least one of the intermediate theory courses (Economics 203 or 204). At least two courses at the 300 level or above. Students should plan their program in consultation with the Department.

NOTE: The offerings listed below are not necessarily available each year. At best it may be possible to offer certain courses every other year. The courses offered in the current year will be published so that students will have the exact information available.

Faculty
  • P. Nagarajan, Professor Emeritus
  • J. Stevens, Assistant Professor, Chair
  • W. Rankaduwa, Professor
  • M.B. Ali, Associate Professor
  • J. Sentance, Associate Professor
  • Y. Jia, Assistant Professor
  • R. Morin Chasse, Assistant Professor
  • L. Clark, Adjunct Professor

Overview

Economics belongs to the branch of knowledge known as the "Social Sciences." The social sciences deal with both intergenerational and intra-generational interactions between human beings in a society.

Human activities can, of course, be studied from many different perspectives. We could look at humans as political, psychological, historical, or economic beings. A political scientist, for example, would analyze the political activities of the people while an economist would examine activities related to their livelihood. Human beings, in order to fulfil their innate desire for food and shelter, engage in activities that lead them to the production of goods such as food, clothing, and housing, as well as services. These acts of production and consumption to satisfy human wants form the very basis of the subject matter of Economics. Perhaps observing people engaged in this pursuit, Alfred Marshall defined economics as "a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life."

Since the ordinary business of life involves the use of limited natural and human-made resources (capital), people have always been interested in making the best possible use of these resources. This efficient use of resources has been the underlying theme in economics. Hence, the most succinct definition of economics would be that economics deals with the efficient utilization of scarce resources to satisfy human wants. Scarcity gives legitimacy to economics. If there is no scarcity, there is no economic problem.

The discipline of Economics is built upon two strands of theory: Microeconomic Theory and Macroeconomic Theory. Microeconomic deals with the study of individual units in an economy, such as consumers, producers, and the interaction of these units in a given market structure. Macroeconomic theory, on the other hand, deals with the economy as a whole. Here we analyze the problems related to unemployment, growth, inflation, and the balance of payments. Most of the other courses in Economics are applied courses which use the concepts of Microeconomic Theory and/ or Macroeconomic Theory. An understanding of the relationship between these two theory courses and other fields in economics is usually helpful in planning your selection of courses.

 

Major

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to major in Economics must complete fifty- four semester hours in Economics and Mathematics according to the program described below. All courses are valued at three semester hours.

Economics

  • 101 - Introductory Microeconomics
  • 102 - Introductory Macroeconomics
  • 203 - Intermediate Microeconomics I
  • 204 - Intermediate Macroeconomics I
  • 305 - Intermediate Microeconomics II
  • 306 - Intermediate Macroeconomics II

One of: 

  • 307 (Formerly 231) - Mathematical Economics
  • 303 - Economic Methodology
  • 308 (Formerly 411) -  Introduction to Econometrics

PLUS:

  • Seven (7) additional elective courses in economics, at least three of which must be at the 300 or 400 level.

Mathematics

  • 111 Finite Mathematics
  • 112 Calculus for the Managerial, Social, and Life Sciences OR 191 and 192 – Single Variable Calculus I and II

Statistics

  • 221 - Introductory Statistics I OR Business 251 - Introduction to Management Science

Recommendation

Students planning to follow graduate studies in Economics are advised to plan their courses with the Department. Such students should include the following courses as part of their seven electives in Economics: 307 - Mathematical Economics and 308 - Econometrics as well as 403 - Advanced Microeconomics and 404 - Macroeconomics. The Department further recommends that students who wish to go on to graduate studies choose Mathematics 191 and Mathematics 192, rather than Mathematics 112, as a stronger base for additional Mathematics courses. Students should also consider including Mathematics 261 (Linear Algebra) in their program of studies.
 

Minor

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MINOR IN ECONOMICS

Students wishing to minor in Economics must complete twenty-one semester hours in Economics distributed as follows: Economics 101 and 102, and five other courses including at least one of the intermediate theory courses (Economics 203 or 204). At least two courses at the 300 level or above. Students should plan their program in consultation with the Department.

NOTE: The offerings listed below are not necessarily available each year. At best it may be possible to offer certain courses every other year. The courses offered in the current year will be published so that students will have the exact information available.

Faculty

  • P. Nagarajan, Professor Emeritus
  • J. Stevens, Assistant Professor, Chair
  • W. Rankaduwa, Professor
  • M.B. Ali, Associate Professor
  • J. Sentance, Associate Professor
  • Y. Jia, Assistant Professor
  • R. Morin Chasse, Assistant Professor
  • L. Clark, Adjunct Professor
Want more information about Economics? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail:
Careers: 
Investment Manager
Fund Manager
Market Researcher
Certified Financial Planner
Financial Analyst
Economist
Course Level: 
100 Level
Courses: 

101 INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS
This course provides an introduction to the economic analysis of consumer and producer behaviour. Of particular concern is the role of the market in the allocation of resources and the distribution of income, and how these outcomes are affected by imperfections in the market system and by government policy.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

102 INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS
An introduction to the development, tools and application of macroeconomic analysis in the Canadian economy. Topics discussed will include inflation, unemployment, monetary policy, fiscal policy as well as others.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

 

Course Level: 
200 Level
Courses: 

203 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS I
The theories of consumer and producer behaviour developed in Economics 101 are elaborated upon through the application of classical utility and indifference curve and production isoquant approaches. Choice under uncertainty and competitive market outcomes are also examined.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

204 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS I
This course explores the national economy in terms of the determination of national output, the general price level, the rate of interest, and employment. It then analyzes the effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in achieving specific goals and combination of goals.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 102
Three hours a week

211 INTRODUCTION TO RESOURCE ECONOMICS
In this course questions concerning the use of natural resources are analyzed using the techniques of microeconomic theory. Issues relating to scarcity and conservation, market failure, inter-temporal allocation of resources, property rights, common property resources, and the environment are discussed from both a Canadian and international perspectives.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

212 REGIONAL ECONOMICS
This course analyzes the problems of regional economic development in terms of factors affecting the location of an economic activity, land use, and migration. Regional disparities and the strategies of the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to reduce them from both historical and contemporary perspectives are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

215 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
This course is an introduction to the field of environmental economics. Students analyze the types of incentives provided by the economic system that lead to environmental degradation as well as improvement. It presents a critical analysis of traditional economic models and introduces alternative ecological models, along with a discussion of such topics as externalities, valuation of ecological assets, and policy development.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours per week

221 CANADIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY
This course surveys the history of Canada’s economic development, emphasizing the interplay of Canada’s resource base, the international economy, and the trade policies of France, England and the United States. Topics include exploitation of the staples trades, industrialization, expansion to the west, the Depression, and our legacy of foreign investment.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

222 PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS
This course examines the broad nature and function of the public sector, with emphasis on the rationale for the existence of the public sector in a market economy and its impact on resource allocation, distribution of income and economic performance. Topics include anatomy of market failure, types of government intervention to correct market failure, the public good, externalities, and an overview of the growth of the public sector in Canada.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

242 THE ECONOMICS OF TOURISM
This course uses economic tools to analyze the role of tourism at the provincial, regional, national and international levels. In-put/output analysis is used to compute local multipliers as they relate to the PEI economy. The role of the hospitality industry is also explored.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

251 MONEY AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
This course analyzes the nature and role of money in the economy. It examines commercial banking, central banking, money and capital markets, and other financial intermediaries. Elements of business finance are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of public financial institutions. Also included are financing foreign trade, consumer finance, an examination of public finance, and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102
Three hours a week

283 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This course introduces students to agricultural economics and the role of agriculture in the economy. It reviews the structure of the food and fibre system from the farm and its suppliers to marketing and consumers. The role of agriculture in development, problems in agricultural trade, and alternatives in market structures and management are among the topics covered.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

285 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

291 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
Managerial economics is the study of those economic principles and techniques needed in the evaluation, planning and management of economic projects in such fields as natural resources, agriculture, international and regional development. Optimization techniques, process programming, demand, cost and price analysis, and the study of alternative management regimes and optimizing goals are among the topics to be studied.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

Course Level: 
300 Level
Courses: 

303 ECONOMIC METHODOLOGY
This course provides a critical analysis of various methodologies used by economists. It introduces students to research in economics by focusing attention on competing economic paradigms and the problem of empirical verification of economic hypotheses.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221
Three hours a week

304 CANADIAN ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
This course examines selected contemporary problems of the Canadian economy by focusing on the formulation and analysis of economic policies designed to deal with these problems.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

305 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS II
An extension of Economics 203, this course covers price determination in monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly models. Game theory, factor pricing, capital investment over time, general equilibrium, asymmetric information, externalities, and public goods are discussed. The use of microeconomics as a tool in decision-making is illustrated.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and Economics 203
3 semester hours

306 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS II
This course addresses the theory of inflation, unemployment, economic growth and fluctuations, the determination of the balance of payments and the exchange rate, and monetary and fiscal policies in closed and open economies.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 102 and Economics 204
3 semester hours

307 (Formerly 231) MATHEMATICAL ECONOMICS
This is an introduction to the use of mathematics in theoretical economic analysis. Topics to be considered include utility maximization, efficient production, price and income determination, the adjustment to and stability of equilibrium, inflation, and the impact of government spending and taxation programs.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, Mathematics 111 and 112. Non-economic majors without Economics 101-102 but possessing a strong background in mathematics may be admitted with the instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

308 (Formerly 411)  INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMETRICS
This course concentrates on effective procedures for the statistical estimation and testing of key parameters in economic models. Remedies are developed for problems associated with model specification. Multicollinearity, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, simultaneous equations, and forecasting.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221, and either Mathematics 112 or 191
Three hours a week

311 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (I)
This course traces economics ideas from the Greek philosophers to the end of the classical school in the mid-nineteenth century, in particular the works of Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, the English Mercantilists, the French physiocrats, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and J.S. Mill. A continuing theme is the relationship between the development of economic ideas and the structure of the society in which the economist lived.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 461)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

312 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (II)
This course traces the evolution of modern economic ideas beginning with Karl Marx. It considers Socialist, Neoclassical, Institutional and Keynesian Schools of Economic thought.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 462)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

324 LABOUR ECONOMICS
From a theoretical perspective this course examines the workings of the labour market under different supply and demand conditions. Topics discussed include labour force participation, human capital investment, unemployment, discrimination and the effects of government policies such as the minimum wage, unemployment insurance, welfare and pay equity legislation.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 or instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

331 INTERNATIONAL TRADE
This course examines the causes and economic consequences of international trade. Topics covered include theories of international trade, aggregate national gains from trade, effects of trade on the distribution of income, tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers, the basic theory of international factor movements, and commercial policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203
Three hours a week

332 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY ECONOMICS
This course focuses on theories of balance of payments adjustment mechanisms and the efficiency of foreign exchange markets. Topics covered include modelling the open economy; the effects of incomes, prices, interest rates and exchange rates on international trade and capital flows; exchange rate regimes, capital mobility and macroeconomic policy coordination; the role of international institutions; and problems of international liquidity.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

341 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORY
This course provides a broad theoretical framework for understanding the development problems of developing countries. Topics covered include theories of economic growth and development, sources of economic growth, patterns of economic development, the role of capital and saving in economic development, inward-looking and outward-looking development, and the problem of industrialization in developing countries.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

342 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY
This course focuses on development strategies and policies for the developing world and related controversies concerning IMF-style stabilization packages. The emphasis is on international aspects of economic development, neo-structuralist policy prescriptions, and empirical aspects of the problem of financing economic development. Selected country case studies are analyzed, particularly from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 341
Three hours a week

352 APPLIED RESOURCE ECONOMICS
This course in applied economics deals with the management of natural resources, with special emphasis on water, fishery and forestry resources. It explains the use of cost-benefit analysis and linear programming in optimizing resource use. It also examines the dynamics of project analysis, the role or projections, and the discount rate.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 211 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

361 (Formerly 431)  INTRODUCTION TO GAME THEORY
The course consists of an introduction to game theory with an emphasis on economics applications. As such, the course will first present an introduction to the basic ideas and concepts underlying Game Theory. It will then introduce the concepts of strategic decisions in a static setting through games including dominant strategies, Nash equilibrium and mixed strategies. The course will also deal with the analysis of strategic decisions in a dynamic setting through sequential games, backward induction, and repeated games.
PREREQUISITES:  Economics 305 and a course in statistics (Statistics 221 or Business 251) or permission of the instructors.

371 THE ECONOMICS OF SPORTS
This course uses economic analysis to examine a variety of aspects of the business of sports. Topics include the structure of sports markets, the value of franchises to owners and cities, competitive balance, salaries, collective agreements, and discrimination. In examining these issues, this course uses models and methods from a variety of fields of economics, including labour economics, industrial organization and competition policy, cost-benefit game theory, public finance, and urban economics.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203 or permission of the instructor
3 semester hours

381 WOMEN, ECONOMICS AND THE ECONOMY
This course examines the treatment of women by the discipline of economics from both mainstream and feminist perspectives. It includes a review of the feminist critique of traditional economics, as well as an examination of the economic literature pertaining to women and women’s activities. Topics include women in the workforce and the economic analysis of fertility, marriage and divorce, and household production.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies and Family Science (cf. DSJS 381 and Family Science 384)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor. For DSJS students, DSJS 109, or permission of the instructor.  When taken as Family Science 384, Family Science 242 is required.
Three hours a week

382 ECONOMICS OF AGING IN AN AGING SOCIETY
This course examines the microeconomics of individual choices with respect to aging in the macroeconomic and public fiscal dimensions of an aging society. It deals with these matters in the context of economic conditions and policy in Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and 102
3 semester hours

385 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

Course Level: 
400 Level
Courses: 

403 ADVANCED MICROECONOMICS
This course extends and analyzes topics developed in Economics 203 at an advanced level. These include demand, production and cost theories, competing theories of the firm, factor pricing, and general equilibrium.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203, 305 and 307
Three hours a week

404 ADVANCED MACROECONOMICS
This course traces the development of the microeconomic foundations of macroeconomic theory to expand students’ analytical skills by constructing and solving macroeconomic models. Topics may include: dynamic choice, uncertainty and rational expectations, business cycles, fiscal and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204, 306 and 307
Three hours a week

405 FINANCIAL ECONOMICS
This course provides an understanding of the economic analysis of the financial system beyond the introductory level. It places particular emphasis on the structure, operation and the role of financial markets, such as money markets, capital markets and derivative markets, and the characteristics of various financial securities traded in these markets. The main topics covered in the course include economic theories of saving and investment behaviour, asset demand and supply under uncertainty, decision making by investors in the presence of uncertainty, portfolio analysis, managing risk, and the models of asset pricing.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203, 204, and 251, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

412 PUBLIC FINANCE
This course deals with the role of the public sector in attaining an efficient allocation of resources and an equitable distribution of income in a market economy. It focuses on theories of public expenditure and taxation, and emphasizes criteria for the evaluation and selection of public expenditure and tax programs. Special attention is given to Canadian fiscal problems and current policy issues in this area.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204
Three hours a week

413 ECONOMETRICS II  
This course is a continuation of Econometrics I (EC 308) intended to introduce students to a selection of estimation and hypothesis-testing methods commonly employed in applied economic research. These additional topics include (but are not necessarily limited to) the analysis of time series, panel data, binary choice models, and basic Monte Carlo/bootstrap methods.   
PREREQUISITE: Economics 411

421-422 DIRECTED STUDIES IN ECONOMICS
These are courses in Economics on a variety of topics for students who have qualified for advanced study. Readings and/or research will be undertaken in a variety of specialized areas. The topics offered must be approved by the Chair of the Department and the Dean of the Faculty. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

485 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

NOTE: The Department encourages students to select “Economic Papers on Island Topics” which may be eligible for a prize from the Prince Edward Island Department of Industry/ ACOA Awards.

Calendar Courses

101 INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS
This course provides an introduction to the economic analysis of consumer and producer behaviour. Of particular concern is the role of the market in the allocation of resources and the distribution of income, and how these outcomes are affected by imperfections in the market system and by government policy.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

102 INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS
An introduction to the development, tools and application of macroeconomic analysis in the Canadian economy. Topics discussed will include inflation, unemployment, monetary policy, fiscal policy as well as others.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

 

203 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS I
The theories of consumer and producer behaviour developed in Economics 101 are elaborated upon through the application of classical utility and indifference curve and production isoquant approaches. Choice under uncertainty and competitive market outcomes are also examined.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

204 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS I
This course explores the national economy in terms of the determination of national output, the general price level, the rate of interest, and employment. It then analyzes the effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in achieving specific goals and combination of goals.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 102
Three hours a week

211 INTRODUCTION TO RESOURCE ECONOMICS
In this course questions concerning the use of natural resources are analyzed using the techniques of microeconomic theory. Issues relating to scarcity and conservation, market failure, inter-temporal allocation of resources, property rights, common property resources, and the environment are discussed from both a Canadian and international perspectives.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

212 REGIONAL ECONOMICS
This course analyzes the problems of regional economic development in terms of factors affecting the location of an economic activity, land use, and migration. Regional disparities and the strategies of the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to reduce them from both historical and contemporary perspectives are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

215 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
This course is an introduction to the field of environmental economics. Students analyze the types of incentives provided by the economic system that lead to environmental degradation as well as improvement. It presents a critical analysis of traditional economic models and introduces alternative ecological models, along with a discussion of such topics as externalities, valuation of ecological assets, and policy development.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours per week

221 CANADIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY
This course surveys the history of Canada’s economic development, emphasizing the interplay of Canada’s resource base, the international economy, and the trade policies of France, England and the United States. Topics include exploitation of the staples trades, industrialization, expansion to the west, the Depression, and our legacy of foreign investment.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

222 PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS
This course examines the broad nature and function of the public sector, with emphasis on the rationale for the existence of the public sector in a market economy and its impact on resource allocation, distribution of income and economic performance. Topics include anatomy of market failure, types of government intervention to correct market failure, the public good, externalities, and an overview of the growth of the public sector in Canada.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

242 THE ECONOMICS OF TOURISM
This course uses economic tools to analyze the role of tourism at the provincial, regional, national and international levels. In-put/output analysis is used to compute local multipliers as they relate to the PEI economy. The role of the hospitality industry is also explored.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

251 MONEY AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
This course analyzes the nature and role of money in the economy. It examines commercial banking, central banking, money and capital markets, and other financial intermediaries. Elements of business finance are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of public financial institutions. Also included are financing foreign trade, consumer finance, an examination of public finance, and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102
Three hours a week

283 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This course introduces students to agricultural economics and the role of agriculture in the economy. It reviews the structure of the food and fibre system from the farm and its suppliers to marketing and consumers. The role of agriculture in development, problems in agricultural trade, and alternatives in market structures and management are among the topics covered.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

285 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

291 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
Managerial economics is the study of those economic principles and techniques needed in the evaluation, planning and management of economic projects in such fields as natural resources, agriculture, international and regional development. Optimization techniques, process programming, demand, cost and price analysis, and the study of alternative management regimes and optimizing goals are among the topics to be studied.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

303 ECONOMIC METHODOLOGY
This course provides a critical analysis of various methodologies used by economists. It introduces students to research in economics by focusing attention on competing economic paradigms and the problem of empirical verification of economic hypotheses.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221
Three hours a week

304 CANADIAN ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
This course examines selected contemporary problems of the Canadian economy by focusing on the formulation and analysis of economic policies designed to deal with these problems.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

305 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS II
An extension of Economics 203, this course covers price determination in monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly models. Game theory, factor pricing, capital investment over time, general equilibrium, asymmetric information, externalities, and public goods are discussed. The use of microeconomics as a tool in decision-making is illustrated.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and Economics 203
3 semester hours

306 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS II
This course addresses the theory of inflation, unemployment, economic growth and fluctuations, the determination of the balance of payments and the exchange rate, and monetary and fiscal policies in closed and open economies.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 102 and Economics 204
3 semester hours

307 (Formerly 231) MATHEMATICAL ECONOMICS
This is an introduction to the use of mathematics in theoretical economic analysis. Topics to be considered include utility maximization, efficient production, price and income determination, the adjustment to and stability of equilibrium, inflation, and the impact of government spending and taxation programs.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, Mathematics 111 and 112. Non-economic majors without Economics 101-102 but possessing a strong background in mathematics may be admitted with the instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

308 (Formerly 411)  INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMETRICS
This course concentrates on effective procedures for the statistical estimation and testing of key parameters in economic models. Remedies are developed for problems associated with model specification. Multicollinearity, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, simultaneous equations, and forecasting.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221, and either Mathematics 112 or 191
Three hours a week

311 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (I)
This course traces economics ideas from the Greek philosophers to the end of the classical school in the mid-nineteenth century, in particular the works of Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, the English Mercantilists, the French physiocrats, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and J.S. Mill. A continuing theme is the relationship between the development of economic ideas and the structure of the society in which the economist lived.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 461)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

312 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (II)
This course traces the evolution of modern economic ideas beginning with Karl Marx. It considers Socialist, Neoclassical, Institutional and Keynesian Schools of Economic thought.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 462)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

324 LABOUR ECONOMICS
From a theoretical perspective this course examines the workings of the labour market under different supply and demand conditions. Topics discussed include labour force participation, human capital investment, unemployment, discrimination and the effects of government policies such as the minimum wage, unemployment insurance, welfare and pay equity legislation.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 or instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

331 INTERNATIONAL TRADE
This course examines the causes and economic consequences of international trade. Topics covered include theories of international trade, aggregate national gains from trade, effects of trade on the distribution of income, tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers, the basic theory of international factor movements, and commercial policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203
Three hours a week

332 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY ECONOMICS
This course focuses on theories of balance of payments adjustment mechanisms and the efficiency of foreign exchange markets. Topics covered include modelling the open economy; the effects of incomes, prices, interest rates and exchange rates on international trade and capital flows; exchange rate regimes, capital mobility and macroeconomic policy coordination; the role of international institutions; and problems of international liquidity.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

341 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORY
This course provides a broad theoretical framework for understanding the development problems of developing countries. Topics covered include theories of economic growth and development, sources of economic growth, patterns of economic development, the role of capital and saving in economic development, inward-looking and outward-looking development, and the problem of industrialization in developing countries.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

342 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY
This course focuses on development strategies and policies for the developing world and related controversies concerning IMF-style stabilization packages. The emphasis is on international aspects of economic development, neo-structuralist policy prescriptions, and empirical aspects of the problem of financing economic development. Selected country case studies are analyzed, particularly from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 341
Three hours a week

352 APPLIED RESOURCE ECONOMICS
This course in applied economics deals with the management of natural resources, with special emphasis on water, fishery and forestry resources. It explains the use of cost-benefit analysis and linear programming in optimizing resource use. It also examines the dynamics of project analysis, the role or projections, and the discount rate.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 211 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

361 (Formerly 431)  INTRODUCTION TO GAME THEORY
The course consists of an introduction to game theory with an emphasis on economics applications. As such, the course will first present an introduction to the basic ideas and concepts underlying Game Theory. It will then introduce the concepts of strategic decisions in a static setting through games including dominant strategies, Nash equilibrium and mixed strategies. The course will also deal with the analysis of strategic decisions in a dynamic setting through sequential games, backward induction, and repeated games.
PREREQUISITES:  Economics 305 and a course in statistics (Statistics 221 or Business 251) or permission of the instructors.

371 THE ECONOMICS OF SPORTS
This course uses economic analysis to examine a variety of aspects of the business of sports. Topics include the structure of sports markets, the value of franchises to owners and cities, competitive balance, salaries, collective agreements, and discrimination. In examining these issues, this course uses models and methods from a variety of fields of economics, including labour economics, industrial organization and competition policy, cost-benefit game theory, public finance, and urban economics.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203 or permission of the instructor
3 semester hours

381 WOMEN, ECONOMICS AND THE ECONOMY
This course examines the treatment of women by the discipline of economics from both mainstream and feminist perspectives. It includes a review of the feminist critique of traditional economics, as well as an examination of the economic literature pertaining to women and women’s activities. Topics include women in the workforce and the economic analysis of fertility, marriage and divorce, and household production.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies and Family Science (cf. DSJS 381 and Family Science 384)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor. For DSJS students, DSJS 109, or permission of the instructor.  When taken as Family Science 384, Family Science 242 is required.
Three hours a week

382 ECONOMICS OF AGING IN AN AGING SOCIETY
This course examines the microeconomics of individual choices with respect to aging in the macroeconomic and public fiscal dimensions of an aging society. It deals with these matters in the context of economic conditions and policy in Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and 102
3 semester hours

385 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

403 ADVANCED MICROECONOMICS
This course extends and analyzes topics developed in Economics 203 at an advanced level. These include demand, production and cost theories, competing theories of the firm, factor pricing, and general equilibrium.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203, 305 and 307
Three hours a week

404 ADVANCED MACROECONOMICS
This course traces the development of the microeconomic foundations of macroeconomic theory to expand students’ analytical skills by constructing and solving macroeconomic models. Topics may include: dynamic choice, uncertainty and rational expectations, business cycles, fiscal and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204, 306 and 307
Three hours a week

405 FINANCIAL ECONOMICS
This course provides an understanding of the economic analysis of the financial system beyond the introductory level. It places particular emphasis on the structure, operation and the role of financial markets, such as money markets, capital markets and derivative markets, and the characteristics of various financial securities traded in these markets. The main topics covered in the course include economic theories of saving and investment behaviour, asset demand and supply under uncertainty, decision making by investors in the presence of uncertainty, portfolio analysis, managing risk, and the models of asset pricing.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203, 204, and 251, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

412 PUBLIC FINANCE
This course deals with the role of the public sector in attaining an efficient allocation of resources and an equitable distribution of income in a market economy. It focuses on theories of public expenditure and taxation, and emphasizes criteria for the evaluation and selection of public expenditure and tax programs. Special attention is given to Canadian fiscal problems and current policy issues in this area.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204
Three hours a week

413 ECONOMETRICS II  
This course is a continuation of Econometrics I (EC 308) intended to introduce students to a selection of estimation and hypothesis-testing methods commonly employed in applied economic research. These additional topics include (but are not necessarily limited to) the analysis of time series, panel data, binary choice models, and basic Monte Carlo/bootstrap methods.   
PREREQUISITE: Economics 411

421-422 DIRECTED STUDIES IN ECONOMICS
These are courses in Economics on a variety of topics for students who have qualified for advanced study. Readings and/or research will be undertaken in a variety of specialized areas. The topics offered must be approved by the Chair of the Department and the Dean of the Faculty. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

485 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

NOTE: The Department encourages students to select “Economic Papers on Island Topics” which may be eligible for a prize from the Prince Edward Island Department of Industry/ ACOA Awards.

Calendar Courses

100 Level

101 INTRODUCTORY MICROECONOMICS
This course provides an introduction to the economic analysis of consumer and producer behaviour. Of particular concern is the role of the market in the allocation of resources and the distribution of income, and how these outcomes are affected by imperfections in the market system and by government policy.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

102 INTRODUCTORY MACROECONOMICS
An introduction to the development, tools and application of macroeconomic analysis in the Canadian economy. Topics discussed will include inflation, unemployment, monetary policy, fiscal policy as well as others.
PREREQUISITE: None
Three hours a week

 

200 Level

203 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS I
The theories of consumer and producer behaviour developed in Economics 101 are elaborated upon through the application of classical utility and indifference curve and production isoquant approaches. Choice under uncertainty and competitive market outcomes are also examined.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

204 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS I
This course explores the national economy in terms of the determination of national output, the general price level, the rate of interest, and employment. It then analyzes the effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in achieving specific goals and combination of goals.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 102
Three hours a week

211 INTRODUCTION TO RESOURCE ECONOMICS
In this course questions concerning the use of natural resources are analyzed using the techniques of microeconomic theory. Issues relating to scarcity and conservation, market failure, inter-temporal allocation of resources, property rights, common property resources, and the environment are discussed from both a Canadian and international perspectives.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

212 REGIONAL ECONOMICS
This course analyzes the problems of regional economic development in terms of factors affecting the location of an economic activity, land use, and migration. Regional disparities and the strategies of the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to reduce them from both historical and contemporary perspectives are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

215 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
This course is an introduction to the field of environmental economics. Students analyze the types of incentives provided by the economic system that lead to environmental degradation as well as improvement. It presents a critical analysis of traditional economic models and introduces alternative ecological models, along with a discussion of such topics as externalities, valuation of ecological assets, and policy development.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or permission of the instructor
Three hours per week

221 CANADIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY
This course surveys the history of Canada’s economic development, emphasizing the interplay of Canada’s resource base, the international economy, and the trade policies of France, England and the United States. Topics include exploitation of the staples trades, industrialization, expansion to the west, the Depression, and our legacy of foreign investment.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

222 PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS
This course examines the broad nature and function of the public sector, with emphasis on the rationale for the existence of the public sector in a market economy and its impact on resource allocation, distribution of income and economic performance. Topics include anatomy of market failure, types of government intervention to correct market failure, the public good, externalities, and an overview of the growth of the public sector in Canada.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

242 THE ECONOMICS OF TOURISM
This course uses economic tools to analyze the role of tourism at the provincial, regional, national and international levels. In-put/output analysis is used to compute local multipliers as they relate to the PEI economy. The role of the hospitality industry is also explored.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

251 MONEY AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
This course analyzes the nature and role of money in the economy. It examines commercial banking, central banking, money and capital markets, and other financial intermediaries. Elements of business finance are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of public financial institutions. Also included are financing foreign trade, consumer finance, an examination of public finance, and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102
Three hours a week

283 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This course introduces students to agricultural economics and the role of agriculture in the economy. It reviews the structure of the food and fibre system from the farm and its suppliers to marketing and consumers. The role of agriculture in development, problems in agricultural trade, and alternatives in market structures and management are among the topics covered.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

285 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

291 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
Managerial economics is the study of those economic principles and techniques needed in the evaluation, planning and management of economic projects in such fields as natural resources, agriculture, international and regional development. Optimization techniques, process programming, demand, cost and price analysis, and the study of alternative management regimes and optimizing goals are among the topics to be studied.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101
Three hours a week

300 Level

303 ECONOMIC METHODOLOGY
This course provides a critical analysis of various methodologies used by economists. It introduces students to research in economics by focusing attention on competing economic paradigms and the problem of empirical verification of economic hypotheses.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221
Three hours a week

304 CANADIAN ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
This course examines selected contemporary problems of the Canadian economy by focusing on the formulation and analysis of economic policies designed to deal with these problems.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

305 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS II
An extension of Economics 203, this course covers price determination in monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly models. Game theory, factor pricing, capital investment over time, general equilibrium, asymmetric information, externalities, and public goods are discussed. The use of microeconomics as a tool in decision-making is illustrated.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and Economics 203
3 semester hours

306 INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS II
This course addresses the theory of inflation, unemployment, economic growth and fluctuations, the determination of the balance of payments and the exchange rate, and monetary and fiscal policies in closed and open economies.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 102 and Economics 204
3 semester hours

307 (Formerly 231) MATHEMATICAL ECONOMICS
This is an introduction to the use of mathematics in theoretical economic analysis. Topics to be considered include utility maximization, efficient production, price and income determination, the adjustment to and stability of equilibrium, inflation, and the impact of government spending and taxation programs.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102, Mathematics 111 and 112. Non-economic majors without Economics 101-102 but possessing a strong background in mathematics may be admitted with the instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

308 (Formerly 411)  INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMETRICS
This course concentrates on effective procedures for the statistical estimation and testing of key parameters in economic models. Remedies are developed for problems associated with model specification. Multicollinearity, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, simultaneous equations, and forecasting.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204, Statistics 221, and either Mathematics 112 or 191
Three hours a week

311 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (I)
This course traces economics ideas from the Greek philosophers to the end of the classical school in the mid-nineteenth century, in particular the works of Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, the English Mercantilists, the French physiocrats, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and J.S. Mill. A continuing theme is the relationship between the development of economic ideas and the structure of the society in which the economist lived.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 461)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

312 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (II)
This course traces the evolution of modern economic ideas beginning with Karl Marx. It considers Socialist, Neoclassical, Institutional and Keynesian Schools of Economic thought.
Cross-listed with History Department (cf. History 462)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

324 LABOUR ECONOMICS
From a theoretical perspective this course examines the workings of the labour market under different supply and demand conditions. Topics discussed include labour force participation, human capital investment, unemployment, discrimination and the effects of government policies such as the minimum wage, unemployment insurance, welfare and pay equity legislation.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 or instructor’s permission
Three hours a week

331 INTERNATIONAL TRADE
This course examines the causes and economic consequences of international trade. Topics covered include theories of international trade, aggregate national gains from trade, effects of trade on the distribution of income, tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers, the basic theory of international factor movements, and commercial policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203
Three hours a week

332 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY ECONOMICS
This course focuses on theories of balance of payments adjustment mechanisms and the efficiency of foreign exchange markets. Topics covered include modelling the open economy; the effects of incomes, prices, interest rates and exchange rates on international trade and capital flows; exchange rate regimes, capital mobility and macroeconomic policy coordination; the role of international institutions; and problems of international liquidity.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

341 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORY
This course provides a broad theoretical framework for understanding the development problems of developing countries. Topics covered include theories of economic growth and development, sources of economic growth, patterns of economic development, the role of capital and saving in economic development, inward-looking and outward-looking development, and the problem of industrialization in developing countries.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204
Three hours a week

342 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY
This course focuses on development strategies and policies for the developing world and related controversies concerning IMF-style stabilization packages. The emphasis is on international aspects of economic development, neo-structuralist policy prescriptions, and empirical aspects of the problem of financing economic development. Selected country case studies are analyzed, particularly from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 341
Three hours a week

352 APPLIED RESOURCE ECONOMICS
This course in applied economics deals with the management of natural resources, with special emphasis on water, fishery and forestry resources. It explains the use of cost-benefit analysis and linear programming in optimizing resource use. It also examines the dynamics of project analysis, the role or projections, and the discount rate.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 211 or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

361 (Formerly 431)  INTRODUCTION TO GAME THEORY
The course consists of an introduction to game theory with an emphasis on economics applications. As such, the course will first present an introduction to the basic ideas and concepts underlying Game Theory. It will then introduce the concepts of strategic decisions in a static setting through games including dominant strategies, Nash equilibrium and mixed strategies. The course will also deal with the analysis of strategic decisions in a dynamic setting through sequential games, backward induction, and repeated games.
PREREQUISITES:  Economics 305 and a course in statistics (Statistics 221 or Business 251) or permission of the instructors.

371 THE ECONOMICS OF SPORTS
This course uses economic analysis to examine a variety of aspects of the business of sports. Topics include the structure of sports markets, the value of franchises to owners and cities, competitive balance, salaries, collective agreements, and discrimination. In examining these issues, this course uses models and methods from a variety of fields of economics, including labour economics, industrial organization and competition policy, cost-benefit game theory, public finance, and urban economics.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203 or permission of the instructor
3 semester hours

381 WOMEN, ECONOMICS AND THE ECONOMY
This course examines the treatment of women by the discipline of economics from both mainstream and feminist perspectives. It includes a review of the feminist critique of traditional economics, as well as an examination of the economic literature pertaining to women and women’s activities. Topics include women in the workforce and the economic analysis of fertility, marriage and divorce, and household production.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies and Family Science (cf. DSJS 381 and Family Science 384)
PREREQUISITE: Economics 101 or 102 or permission of the instructor. For DSJS students, DSJS 109, or permission of the instructor.  When taken as Family Science 384, Family Science 242 is required.
Three hours a week

382 ECONOMICS OF AGING IN AN AGING SOCIETY
This course examines the microeconomics of individual choices with respect to aging in the macroeconomic and public fiscal dimensions of an aging society. It deals with these matters in the context of economic conditions and policy in Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 101 and 102
3 semester hours

385 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

400 Level

403 ADVANCED MICROECONOMICS
This course extends and analyzes topics developed in Economics 203 at an advanced level. These include demand, production and cost theories, competing theories of the firm, factor pricing, and general equilibrium.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203, 305 and 307
Three hours a week

404 ADVANCED MACROECONOMICS
This course traces the development of the microeconomic foundations of macroeconomic theory to expand students’ analytical skills by constructing and solving macroeconomic models. Topics may include: dynamic choice, uncertainty and rational expectations, business cycles, fiscal and monetary policy.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 204, 306 and 307
Three hours a week

405 FINANCIAL ECONOMICS
This course provides an understanding of the economic analysis of the financial system beyond the introductory level. It places particular emphasis on the structure, operation and the role of financial markets, such as money markets, capital markets and derivative markets, and the characteristics of various financial securities traded in these markets. The main topics covered in the course include economic theories of saving and investment behaviour, asset demand and supply under uncertainty, decision making by investors in the presence of uncertainty, portfolio analysis, managing risk, and the models of asset pricing.
PREREQUISITES: Economics 203, 204, and 251, or permission of the instructor
Three hours a week

412 PUBLIC FINANCE
This course deals with the role of the public sector in attaining an efficient allocation of resources and an equitable distribution of income in a market economy. It focuses on theories of public expenditure and taxation, and emphasizes criteria for the evaluation and selection of public expenditure and tax programs. Special attention is given to Canadian fiscal problems and current policy issues in this area.
PREREQUISITE: Economics 203 and 204
Three hours a week

413 ECONOMETRICS II  
This course is a continuation of Econometrics I (EC 308) intended to introduce students to a selection of estimation and hypothesis-testing methods commonly employed in applied economic research. These additional topics include (but are not necessarily limited to) the analysis of time series, panel data, binary choice models, and basic Monte Carlo/bootstrap methods.   
PREREQUISITE: Economics 411

421-422 DIRECTED STUDIES IN ECONOMICS
These are courses in Economics on a variety of topics for students who have qualified for advanced study. Readings and/or research will be undertaken in a variety of specialized areas. The topics offered must be approved by the Chair of the Department and the Dean of the Faculty. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

485 SPECIAL TOPICS
A lecture course in which contemporary topics or economic issues are explored and analyzed in an introductory/general manner.

NOTE: The Department encourages students to select “Economic Papers on Island Topics” which may be eligible for a prize from the Prince Edward Island Department of Industry/ ACOA Awards.