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Doctor of Veterinary Medicine

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The DVM program at the Atlantic Veterinary College is fully accredited by the Canadian and American Veterinary Medical Associations, and is recognized by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Our highly sought after graduates are eligible for licensure in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. They consistently achieve high success rates in licensing examinations and have excellent employment opportunities worldwide.

“The AVC is committed to producing graduates with the knowledge, skills, aptitudes, and attitudes to become proficient entry-level veterinarians in multi-species clinical practice, with the flexibility to pursue a variety of focused opportunities in clinical practice or other career tracks available to the veterinary profession.”

The DVM curriculum is four years in duration consisting of three preclinical years followed by one clinical year. It combines a broad based, multispecies core with elective opportunities that allow students to shape their own career paths in Years 3 and 4.

All Year 1 courses are required and include instruction in the basic science disciplines with a focus on normal form and function with opportunities for integrated problem-based learning. Coursework in animal behaviour, welfare and production systems, as well as epidemiology and critical reasoning is included. Basic clinical skills including animal restraint and handling are also introduced with opportunities to interact with faculty, staff and senior students in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Year 1 also includes a course in fundamental research principles, and expanded opportunities to explore concepts related to professional identity and develop skills such as reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being.

All Year 2 courses are required and include instruction in disease processes and agents as well as public health and evidence-based medicine. Course work in clinical disciplines such as medicine, surgery, anesthesia, diagnostic imaging, theriogenology, and primary care practice is introduced as well as training in related clinical skills. In addition, a course that builds on Year 1 content in the Professional Foundations strand offers opportunities related to ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, leadership, and clinical communication skills.

Year 3 transitions to a core-elective structure for both large and small animal disciplines with the majority of core coursework occurring in semester one and the majority of elective courses offered in semester two in a series of five week modules. Year 3 core courses address fundamental knowledge and skills in large and small animals, including decision-making for both well and sick animals. Year 3 electives are designed to give students added flexibility and allow them opportunities to focus on a particular species or career interest beyond the core curriculum.

In Year 4 students are required to participate in at least 39 weeks of clinical rotations and a 2-credit seminar-based course entitled Clinical Conference. Clinical rotations offer students the opportunity to apply their veterinary medical and professional knowledge and skills under the mentorship of experienced faculty members. Each rotation ranges in duration from one to three weeks and one week of rotation equates to one academic credit. Students are required to take a common core of eight three week rotations including Anesthesiology, Radiology, Companion Animal Medicine, Companion Animal Surgery, Community Practice, Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, Large Animal Health Management, and Diagnostic Services. Beyond this core, students must take an additional three weeks of more specialized internal electives, while the remaining twelve weeks of electives may be any combination of internal or approved external rotations.

Dr. Leigh Lamont
Associate Dean, Academic and Student Affairs
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ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS—DVM

REGULATIONS

Course Load and Course Prerequisites
Except in rare circumstances, each student will take a full course load each year. Students must pass prerequisite courses prior to enrolling in courses which require a listed prerequisite.

Materials in Exams
No materials of any kind, other than pencils and pens, may be brought into an examination room without explicit permission of the course coordinator.

Pass-Fail Option
The pass-fail option for courses (Academic Regulation 10c) will apply in the DVM Program only in certain specified courses at the recommendation of the course coordinator and upon approval of the AVC Curriculum Committee and AVC Dean’s Council.

Grading in Year 4
Internal and external courses (rotations) in year 4 are graded according to the following 3 point scale:

  1. Passing Performance - achieves entry-level competency.
  2. Marginal Performance - approaches entry-level competency.
  3. Failing Performance - does not achieve entry-level competency.

Challenge for Credit by Examination
Challenge for credit by examination is normally not permitted in the DVM Program. Students who are able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the relevant chair that they have previously taken an equivalent course at the Atlantic Veterinary College, may challenge for credit by examination as outlined in Academic Regulation 15.

Advancement and Probation
Years 1 - 3
In Years 1 – 3, student success is measured by both course grades and semester weighted averages. In order to advance to the next semester a student must:
1. achieve a grade of at least 50% in all courses taken for credit, regardless of the total number of credits taken. In any multicomponent course a passing grade will be assigned only if each component identified by the course coordinator (e.g., laboratory and didactic sections) has been successfully completed.
2. achieve a weighted average of at least 65%. However, a student with a weighted average of at least 55% but under 65% in first semester of year 1, and at least 60% but under 65% in all other semesters, will be placed on academic probation and allowed to advance.

NOTE:  Weighted averages are not rounded up. The following criteria will apply to a student on academic probation:

a. the student will be permitted only one probationary period (up to a maximum duration of 2 semesters) in the DVM program.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of the probationary period will result in academic dismissal.

c. return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation will result in academic dismissal.

d. except with permission of the Dean, or designate, a student cannot advance to year 4 without a weighted average of at least 65%.

Year 4
In Year 4 student success is measured by both clinical rotation grades and programmatic outcomes tracked across rotations.

1.  Regarding clinical rotation grades:

a.  A student must achieve a “Passing Performance” in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in one 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 3 weeks, will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal Performance” but will be allowed to advance.

b.  A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a second 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 6 weeks, must develop and execute a remediation plan to address noted deficiencies. Once the plan is approved by the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs, the student will be allowed to advance.

c. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a third 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 9 weeks, will be academically dismissed from the program.

d.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a rotation will be required to successfully repeat the failed rotation or complete an equivalent alternative experience (approved by the course coordinator of the failed rotation and Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs). The performance assessment attained in the repeated rotation will be recorded on the student’s transcript.  A students who is unsuccessful when repeating the rotation will be academically dismissed from the program.

e.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a second rotation, after successfully repeating a first failed rotation, will be academically dismissed from the program.

2.  Regarding programmatic outcomes:

a. A student must consistently attain ratings of “Competent” or better for all criteria on the Evaluation of Student Performance in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on a single criterion, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance”, will be allowed to advance.

b. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on two different rotations, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal” ratings but will be allowed to advance.

c.  A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a third rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” must develop and execute a remediation plan to address deficiencies on future rotations or undergo reassessment of the deficient criterion. The decision regarding whether a student may remediate the criterion on a future rotation or be required to undergo reassessment will be made collaboratively by the course coordinators of the eight core rotations and the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs. Reassessment of the deficient criterion may involve written and/or oral presentation of clinical cases, demonstration of specific clinical skills, or a combination of multiple formats. The reassessment activity/assignment will be designed, administered and evaluated by an independent faculty member. The student must achieve a rating of at least “Competent” on the reassessment activity/assignment in order to be considered to have achieved the criterion in question. 

d.  A student achieving a rating of “Marginal” after reassessment of a deficient criterion will be provided with further time and mentoring and will be reassessed a second and, if necessary, a third time. A student who fails to achieve a rating of “Competent” on a particular criterion after three reassessment activities/assignments will be academically dismissed from the program.

e. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a fourth rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” and after undergoing the remediation process outlined in c. above, will be academically dismissed from the program.

Academic Dismissal

1. The following will result in academic dismissal:

a. failure to achieve a grade of 50% in any course taken for credit.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of: (i) at least 55% in semester 1 of year 1, and (ii) at least 60% in any semester (other than semester 1 of year 1) in years 1-3.

c. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of a probationary period in year 1-3 or return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation in years 1-3.

d. “Failing Performance” in a single rotation that is not successfully repeated in year 4.

e. “Failing Performance” in a second rotation after successfully repeating a first failed rotation in year 4.

f. receive 9 or more rotation credit hours of a “Marginal Performance” in year 4. NOTE: Weighted averages are not rounded up.

g. receive a “Marginal” rating after three reassessment activities for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion in year 4.

h. receive a “Marginal” rating for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion on a fourth rotation after successfully remediating that criterion in year 4.

Petition for Readmission
1. Dismissed students may petition the Dean for readmission to the program. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in years 1-3 will normally be required to:
a. repeat all courses in the semester in question if dismissed for failing one or more courses.
b. repeat all courses in the academic year in question if dismissed for failing to attain a weighted average of at least 60% in years 1-3.
c. re-enter the program at the beginning of the academic year in which they were first placed on probation if dismissed for failing to achieve the required weighted average of at least 65% at the end of a two semester probationary period.

2. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in year 4 will normally be required to repeat year 4.

SUPPLEMENTAL EXAMINATION
A supplemental examination provides an opportunity for a student who failed a course to be re-examined in that course.

With the exclusion of certain specified courses (see list below), a student who fails a course in years 1-3 of the DVM program will be granted a supplemental examination if the following criteria are met:

a. a student will be granted only two (2) supplemental examinations in the DVM program.

b. to be eligible for a supplemental examination the overall course grade, including performance in the final examination, must be at least 40%.

c. the maximum grade attainable in a course or course component (as specified by the course coordinator) in which a supplemental examination is written shall be 50%.

d. if the maximum grade of 50%, attainable in a course in which a supplemental examination is written, contributes to a weighted average that will allow the student to remain in the program.

The scope of the supplemental examination is at the discretion of the course coordinator and will be communicated to the student in advance. In order to pass the supplemental examination, the student must achieve a grade of at least 60% in that exam.

A student who fails a course in semester 1, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be required to write the examination before being permitted to continue with courses in semester 2 of the DVM program. A student who fails a course in semester 2 of the DVM program, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be expected to write the examination no later than the end of the third week of May.

Supplemental examinations are not offered in the following courses:
a. Clinical rotations in Year 4.
b.  VHM 124 Clinical Orientation I, VHM 251 Clinical Orientation II, VCA 340 Surgical Exercises in Companion Animals, VHM 324 Clinical Techniques in Large Animals, VHM 337 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 338 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 343 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques, VHM 346 Techniques in Advanced Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery, VHM 348 Techniques in Equine Surgery and Anaesthesia, VHM 351 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal diseases, and VHM 353 Techniques in Integrative Medicine.

ATTENDANCE POLICY

Lectures and Laboratories
Student attendance at didactic lectures and laboratories is strongly encouraged but not mandated. Individual course coordinators may choose to make attendance mandatory for a particular course or course component, and points may be assigned based on attendance. If attendance at didactic lectures or laboratories is required for an individual course, it must be specified in the course outline. Submission of a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form is not required for missed lectures or laboratories, unless mandated by a particular course coordinator.

Assessments
1. Student attendance at scheduled quizzes, in-class or in-lab graded learning experiences, and midterm and final examinations is required. Permission to make-up missed work involving any of these will be granted for excused absences only. Excused absences may be planned or unplanned. In the event of an excused absence, the instructor may provide a make-up assignment or examination that is different from the one given during regularly scheduled class time.

2. Unplanned absences are due to unavoidable, unpredictable circumstances and include illness, family emergency, or death in the family. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. The student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work. In emergency situations, the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs may be contacted to assist with these arrangements.

a.  If the student is able, he/she should complete a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form before the day of missed work and submit it to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs. If this is not possible, the student should contact the Office by phone at (902) 894-2827, or email (avc-acad-stu@upei.ca) as soon as possible. The Office will contact the necessary course coordinator(s) to notify them of the student’s absence. In the case of illness, a doctor’s certificate may also be required at the discretion of the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs.

3. Planned absences may be excused when they are for legitimate reasons and when the appropriate procedure for requesting permission has been followed. Legitimate reasons for planned absences include attendance at a scientific meeting where the student is making a scholarly presentation, receiving an award, or representing the AVC in an officially approved capacity; or in observance of a religious holiday. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. If a planned absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

a.  Adequate documentation detailing the reason for the absence must be provided and a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form must be submitted to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs within the first three weeks of the semester and at least four weeks prior to the planned absence. Students will be notified of the decision regarding their request by the Office of the Academic and Student Affairs.  Students should not schedule travel without prior approval and incurred travel expenses do not in themselves warrant an excused absence .

4. Absences not falling into one of the above categories will be considered on a case-by-case basis according to their merit. Students should follow the procedure outlined above for requesting an excused absence. If the absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

Consequences of Unexcused Absences

  1. In the event that a quiz, in-class or in-lab graded assignment, or midterm examination is missed and the absence was unexcused, the student will be assigned a grade of zero for the missed work. In the case of multiple absences, the student may be withdrawn from the course and assigned a grade of F.
  2. In the case of missed final examinations academic regulations 13b (Special Examinations and Missed Final Examinations), and 10e (Incomplete Courses) in the UPEI calendar apply.

Clinical Rotations

  1. Attendance in clinical rotations is mandatory. In total, eight personal days are allowed during the fourth year. Examples of personal days include, but are not limited to, job interviews, personal or family illness, attendance at scientific meetings, etc.
  2. All absences must be excused by the rotation coordinator and duty clinician.
  3. In all cases of missed rotation days, students must complete a “Clinical Rotation Absence Request” form and have it signed by the rotation coordinator and, if applicable, the duty clinician. A copy of the form will be forwarded by the rotation coordinator to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs so that a central record of absences can be kept.
  4. Make-up of missed clinical experiences is normally not required for absences of up to 15% of the rotation duration. The Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs will notify rotation coordinators of total absences in excess of eight personal days and coordinate make-up of missed clinical experiences.

For the complete admission and application requirements, including how to determine your province of residence, please visit the Admission Requirements page using the link on the right of this page.

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First Year 

Semester 1
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I 2 5 4
VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I 1 2 2
VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare 2 0 2
VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research 1 0 1
VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I 1 2 2
VBS 1210 Physiology I 2 0 2
VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I 0 5 2
VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems 2 1 2
VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology 2 1 2
  13 16 19

Semester 2
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II 2 5 4
VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II 1.4 1.7 3
VBS 1220 Physiology II 2 0 2
VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II 0 3 1
VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology 2 1 2
VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I 0 3 1
VPM 1220 Parasitology 2 2 3
VPM 1520 General Pathology 2 2 3
  11.4 17.7 19


Second Year
Semester 3
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I 3 1 3
VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I 1 1 1
VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health 2 0 2
VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine 1 1 1
VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II    1 2 1
VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology        3 2 4
VPM 2110 Virology 2 2 3
VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I 2 2 3
VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II 1 2 2
  16 13 20

Semester 4
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II 1 1 1
VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology 2 1 2
VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II 1 1 1
VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine  2 0 2
VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I 2 0 2
VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III 0 4 1
VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology 1 0 1
VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II 2 2 3
VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology 2 2 3
VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health 1 0 1
  17 11 20

THE THIRD YEAR

The third year of the DVM program consists of core and elective courses. Students are required to take all of the core courses and at least 16 credit hours of elective courses. The majority of elective courses are delivered in 5 week modules (M) in semester 6.

Third Year
Semester 5
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II 1 0 1
VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine 4 0 4
VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery 4 0 4
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 0
VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease 5 0 5
VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease 4 0 4
VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV 0 3 1
VHM 3630 Professional Foundations M 0 1
  18 5 20

Elective(s)

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology 1 0 1
VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 1 0 1
VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine 1 0 1

Semester 6
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 2
VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV 0 1 0.5
  0 3 2.5
Elective (s)      
VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine M 0 1.5
VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology M 0 1

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals

M   0.5
VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition M   0.5

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production

M   1.0

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lameness, Welfare and Cow Comfort

M   0.5
VHM 3290 Topics in Poultry and Swine M   0.5
VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants     1.0
VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Animals and the Ecosystem M   1.0
VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine M   1.0
VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine M   0.5
VHM 3450 Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery  M   0.5

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5
VHM 3470 Equine Anaesthesia, Surgery and Lameness M   1.5

VHM 3480 Techniques in Equine Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases

M   0.5
VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5

M designates modular course format

     

THE FOURTH YEAR

The fourth year of the DVM program consists of at least 41 semester-hours of credit comprising:

  • one two-semester-hour didactic course (VHM 4110)
  • 24 semester-hours (24 weeks) of core clinical rotations
  • at least 15 semester-hours (15 weeks) of elective clinical rotations.

Fourth Year
Semester 7 or 8
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VHM 4110 Clinical Conference 0 2 2

Clinical rotations in Fourth Year must consist of at least 39 semester-hours of credit selected from among approved one-to three-credit-hour core and elective rotations. Fourth-year rotations require a minimum time commitment of 28 hours per week of each student, and emergency and out-of-hours duties may be required. Normally, one week of fourth-year rotation experience equates to one semester-hour of credit.

Fourth-year rotation selections comprising the required 39 semester-hours of credit must meet the following criteria:

  • All students must take a core consisting of 24 semester-hours (weeks) of internal rotations as follows:

a. Clinics in Radiology (VCA 4400)—3 weeks
b. Clinics in Anaesthesiology (VCA 4000) —3 weeks
c. Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine (VCA 4100)—3 weeks 
d. Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery (VCA 4300)—3 weeks
e. Communit Practice (VCA 4340)—3 weeks
f.  Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (VHM 4600)—3 weeks
g. Large Animal Health Management (VHM 4230)—3 weeks
h. Diagnostic Services (VPM 4500)—3 weeks

  • 27 semester-hours of credit must consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC.
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), 
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC, and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), and/or external clinical experiences in general private practice (VCA 4940, VHM 4940).

Students are required to select rotations from the following list:

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
VBS 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VBS 4950 Special Topics in Biomedical Sciences
VCA 4020 Clinics in Anaesthesiology II 
VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II 
VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology 
VCA 4750 Client Communications
VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology 
VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology 
VCA 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VCA 4940 External Clinical Experience-General Private Practice
VCA 4950 Special Topics in Companion Animals
VHM 4010 Career and Practice Management
VHM 4020 Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4040 Aquaculture Health Management I 
VHM 4050 Aquaculture Health Management II 
VHM 4060 Topics in Regulatory Veterinary Epidemiology
VHM 4120 Animal Welfare Assessment & Regulations
VHM 4130 Fish Health
VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminants and Swine I 
VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service—Dairy 
VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
VHM 4360 Clinics in Farm Services—Swine 
VHM 4380 Ecosystem Health—Case Studies
VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminants and Swine II 
VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service—Feedlot Management
VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Nutrition
VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Mastitis
VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine & Surgery II
VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
VHM 4810 Clinics in Ruminant Medicine and Surgery Rotation at the University of Montreal – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (English Rotation)
VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques (Cooperative Section)
VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture (cooperative section)
VHM 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
VHM 4940 External Clinical Experience—General Private Practice
VHM 4950 Special Topics in Health Management
VPM 4100 International Veterinary Medicine
VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
VPM 4220 Foreign Animal Diseases with Practicum
VPM 4300 Clinical Virology
VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
VPM 4720 Wildlife Health
VPM 4900 External Clinical Experience—Institutional or Specialist Practice
VPM 4950 Special Topics in Pathology and Microbiology

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Biomedical Sciences Faculty

Amreek Singh, Professor Emeritus
Jonathan Spears, Associate Professor, Chair
Luis A. Bate, Professor
Susan D. Dawson, Professor
Spencer J. Greenwood, Professor
Collins Kamunde, Professor
Russell Kerr, Professor
R. Andrew Tasker, Professor
Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
William Whelan, Professor
Glenda M. Wright, Professor
Sunny Hartwig, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Tammy Muirhead, Associate Professor
John Burka, Adjunct Professor
Dounia Daoud, Adjunct Professor
Daphne Gill, Adjunct Professor
Brad Halti, Adjunct Professor
Okey Igboeli, Adjunct Professor
Michelle Patterson, Adjunct Professor
Harold Robertson, Adjunct Professor
Don Stevens, Adjunct Professor
Jackalina VanKampen, Adjunct Professor
Yanwen Wang, Adjunct Professor

Companion Animals Faculty

Stephanie M. Hamilton, Associate Professor, Chair
Etienne Côté, Professor
Hans C.J. Gelens, Professor
Leigh Lamont, Associate Professor
David C. Seeler, Associate Professor
Pierre Amsellem, Assistant Professor
Shiori Arai, Assistant Professor
Catherine Creighton, Assistant Professor
James Dundas, Assistant Professor
Peter Foley, Assistant Professor
Peter Moak, Assistant Professor
Oriana Raab, Assistant Professor
Christine Savidge, Assistant Professor
Tonya Stewart, Assistant Professor
Anne Marie Carey, Lecturer
Kathy Ling, Lecturer
Michael West, Lecturer
Marti Hopson, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Charlotte Pye, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Darcy Shaw, Adjunct Professor

Health Management Faculty

Ian Dohoo, Professor Emeritus
Lawrence E. Heider, Professor Emeritus
Timothy Ogilvie, Professor Emeritus
Daniel Hurnik, Professor, Chair
Michael Cockram, Professor
T. Jeffrey Davidson, Professor
Wendy Duckett, Professor
Ian Gardner, Professor
Larry Hammell, Professor
Gregory Keefe, Professor
Jeanne Lofstedt, Professor
J.T. McClure, Professor
Laurie McDuffee, Professor
Mary A. McNiven, Professor
Crawford Revie, Professor
Henrik E. Stryhn, Professor
John VanLeeuwen, Professor
Aimie Doyle, Associate Professor
Shawn McKenna, Associate Professor
Arthur Ortenburger, Associate Professor
Javier Sanchez, Associate Professor
Sophie St-Hilaire, Associate Professor
Brownyn Crane, Assistant Professor
Luke Heider, Assistant Professor
Kathleen MacMillan, Assistant Professor
Martha Mellish, Assistant Professor
Herman Barkema, Adjunct Professor
Vaughn Black, Adjunct Professor
Visanu Boonyawiwat, Adjunct Professor
David Buckeridge, Adjunct Professor
Ebo Budo-Amoako, Adjunct Professor
Marguerite Cameron, Adjunct Professor
Alejandro Ceballos, Adjunct Professor
Marcello Chaffer, Adjunct Professor
Jette Christensen, Adjunct Professor
Seongbeom Cho, Adjunct Professor
Thierry Chopin, Adjunct Professor
Luc Comeau, Adjunct Professor
Ruth Cox, Adjunct Professor
Simon Dufour, Adjunct Professor
Andre Dumas, Adjunct Professor
Ronald Erskine, Adjunct Professor
George Gitau, Adjunct Professor
Stewart Johnson, Adjunct Professor
David Kelton, Adjunct Professor
Thomas Landry, Adjunct Professor
Andrea Locke, Adjunct Professor
Rob Lofstedt, Adjunct Professor
Carol McClure, Adjunct Professor
Paula Menzies, Adjunct Professor
Suzanne Millman, Adjunct Professor
Doug Munroe, Adjunct Professor
Cordell Neudorf, Adjunct Professor
Zvonimir Poljak, Adjunct Professor
Jacqueline Quail, Adjunct Professor
Erin Rees, Adjunct Professor
Nancy Rheault, Adjunct Professor
Chris Riley, Adjunct Professor
Jean-Philipe Roy, Adjunct Professor
Lauranne Sanderson, Adjunct Professor
Shayan Sharf, Adjunct Professor
Anthony Shaw, Adjunct Professor
Victor Tsuma, Adjunct Professor
Fabienne Uehlinger, Adjunct Professor
Raphael Vanderstichel, Adjunct Professor
Paul Veugelers, Adjunct Professor
Scott J. Weese, Adjunct Professor
Jeffrey Wichtel, Adjunct Professor
Maureen Wichtel, Adjunct Professor

Pathology and Microbiology Faculty

Gerry Johnson, Professor Emeritus
Alfonso Lopez, Professor Emeritus
Frederick S.B. Kibenge, Professor, Chair
Shelley A. Burton, Professor
Gary A. Conboy, Professor
Pierre-Yves Daoust, Professor
David J. Speare, Professor
Mark Fast, Associate Professor
Cornelia V. Gilroy, Associate Professor
Paul E.A. Hanna, Associate Professor
P. Jeffrey Lewis, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Anne Muckle, Associate Professor
Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Associate Professor
Noel Clancy, Assistant Professor
Chelsea Martin, Assistant Professor
Shannon Martinson, Assistant Professor
Andrea Bourque, Adjunct Professor
Mark Braceland, Adjunct Professor
María Forzán, Adjunct Professor
Salvatore Frasca, Adjunct Professor
Catherine Graham, Adjunct Professor
David Groman, Adjunct Professor
Tiago Hori, Adjunct Professor
Barb Horney, Adjunct Professor
Gerry Johnson, Adjunct Professor
Molly Kibenge, Adjunct Professor
Vett Lloyd, Adjunct Professor
Alfonso López, Adjunct Professor
R.J. Frederick Markham, Adjunct Professor
Scott McBurney, Adjunct Professor
Ahmen Siah, Adjunct Professor
Yingwei Wang, Adjunct Professor
Shona Whyte, Adjunct Professor
Samuel Workenhe, Adjunct Professor
Huimin Xu, Adjunct Professor
Carmencita Yason, Adjunct Professor

DVM Program

The DVM program at the Atlantic Veterinary College is fully accredited by the Canadian and American Veterinary Medical Associations, and is recognized by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Our highly sought after graduates are eligible for licensure in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. They consistently achieve high success rates in licensing examinations and have excellent employment opportunities worldwide.

“The AVC is committed to producing graduates with the knowledge, skills, aptitudes, and attitudes to become proficient entry-level veterinarians in multi-species clinical practice, with the flexibility to pursue a variety of focused opportunities in clinical practice or other career tracks available to the veterinary profession.”

The DVM curriculum is four years in duration consisting of three preclinical years followed by one clinical year. It combines a broad based, multispecies core with elective opportunities that allow students to shape their own career paths in Years 3 and 4.

All Year 1 courses are required and include instruction in the basic science disciplines with a focus on normal form and function with opportunities for integrated problem-based learning. Coursework in animal behaviour, welfare and production systems, as well as epidemiology and critical reasoning is included. Basic clinical skills including animal restraint and handling are also introduced with opportunities to interact with faculty, staff and senior students in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Year 1 also includes a course in fundamental research principles, and expanded opportunities to explore concepts related to professional identity and develop skills such as reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being.

All Year 2 courses are required and include instruction in disease processes and agents as well as public health and evidence-based medicine. Course work in clinical disciplines such as medicine, surgery, anesthesia, diagnostic imaging, theriogenology, and primary care practice is introduced as well as training in related clinical skills. In addition, a course that builds on Year 1 content in the Professional Foundations strand offers opportunities related to ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, leadership, and clinical communication skills.

Year 3 transitions to a core-elective structure for both large and small animal disciplines with the majority of core coursework occurring in semester one and the majority of elective courses offered in semester two in a series of five week modules. Year 3 core courses address fundamental knowledge and skills in large and small animals, including decision-making for both well and sick animals. Year 3 electives are designed to give students added flexibility and allow them opportunities to focus on a particular species or career interest beyond the core curriculum.

In Year 4 students are required to participate in at least 39 weeks of clinical rotations and a 2-credit seminar-based course entitled Clinical Conference. Clinical rotations offer students the opportunity to apply their veterinary medical and professional knowledge and skills under the mentorship of experienced faculty members. Each rotation ranges in duration from one to three weeks and one week of rotation equates to one academic credit. Students are required to take a common core of eight three week rotations including Anesthesiology, Radiology, Companion Animal Medicine, Companion Animal Surgery, Community Practice, Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, Large Animal Health Management, and Diagnostic Services. Beyond this core, students must take an additional three weeks of more specialized internal electives, while the remaining twelve weeks of electives may be any combination of internal or approved external rotations.

Associate Dean, Academic and Student Affairs
Dr. Leigh Lamont
Academic Requirements

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS—DVM

REGULATIONS

Course Load and Course Prerequisites
Except in rare circumstances, each student will take a full course load each year. Students must pass prerequisite courses prior to enrolling in courses which require a listed prerequisite.

Materials in Exams
No materials of any kind, other than pencils and pens, may be brought into an examination room without explicit permission of the course coordinator.

Pass-Fail Option
The pass-fail option for courses (Academic Regulation 10c) will apply in the DVM Program only in certain specified courses at the recommendation of the course coordinator and upon approval of the AVC Curriculum Committee and AVC Dean’s Council.

Grading in Year 4
Internal and external courses (rotations) in year 4 are graded according to the following 3 point scale:

  1. Passing Performance - achieves entry-level competency.
  2. Marginal Performance - approaches entry-level competency.
  3. Failing Performance - does not achieve entry-level competency.

Challenge for Credit by Examination
Challenge for credit by examination is normally not permitted in the DVM Program. Students who are able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the relevant chair that they have previously taken an equivalent course at the Atlantic Veterinary College, may challenge for credit by examination as outlined in Academic Regulation 15.

Advancement and Probation
Years 1 - 3
In Years 1 – 3, student success is measured by both course grades and semester weighted averages. In order to advance to the next semester a student must:
1. achieve a grade of at least 50% in all courses taken for credit, regardless of the total number of credits taken. In any multicomponent course a passing grade will be assigned only if each component identified by the course coordinator (e.g., laboratory and didactic sections) has been successfully completed.
2. achieve a weighted average of at least 65%. However, a student with a weighted average of at least 55% but under 65% in first semester of year 1, and at least 60% but under 65% in all other semesters, will be placed on academic probation and allowed to advance.

NOTE:  Weighted averages are not rounded up. The following criteria will apply to a student on academic probation:

a. the student will be permitted only one probationary period (up to a maximum duration of 2 semesters) in the DVM program.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of the probationary period will result in academic dismissal.

c. return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation will result in academic dismissal.

d. except with permission of the Dean, or designate, a student cannot advance to year 4 without a weighted average of at least 65%.

Year 4
In Year 4 student success is measured by both clinical rotation grades and programmatic outcomes tracked across rotations.

1.  Regarding clinical rotation grades:

a.  A student must achieve a “Passing Performance” in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in one 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 3 weeks, will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal Performance” but will be allowed to advance.

b.  A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a second 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 6 weeks, must develop and execute a remediation plan to address noted deficiencies. Once the plan is approved by the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs, the student will be allowed to advance.

c. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a third 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 9 weeks, will be academically dismissed from the program.

d.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a rotation will be required to successfully repeat the failed rotation or complete an equivalent alternative experience (approved by the course coordinator of the failed rotation and Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs). The performance assessment attained in the repeated rotation will be recorded on the student’s transcript.  A students who is unsuccessful when repeating the rotation will be academically dismissed from the program.

e.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a second rotation, after successfully repeating a first failed rotation, will be academically dismissed from the program.

2.  Regarding programmatic outcomes:

a. A student must consistently attain ratings of “Competent” or better for all criteria on the Evaluation of Student Performance in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on a single criterion, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance”, will be allowed to advance.

b. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on two different rotations, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal” ratings but will be allowed to advance.

c.  A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a third rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” must develop and execute a remediation plan to address deficiencies on future rotations or undergo reassessment of the deficient criterion. The decision regarding whether a student may remediate the criterion on a future rotation or be required to undergo reassessment will be made collaboratively by the course coordinators of the eight core rotations and the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs. Reassessment of the deficient criterion may involve written and/or oral presentation of clinical cases, demonstration of specific clinical skills, or a combination of multiple formats. The reassessment activity/assignment will be designed, administered and evaluated by an independent faculty member. The student must achieve a rating of at least “Competent” on the reassessment activity/assignment in order to be considered to have achieved the criterion in question. 

d.  A student achieving a rating of “Marginal” after reassessment of a deficient criterion will be provided with further time and mentoring and will be reassessed a second and, if necessary, a third time. A student who fails to achieve a rating of “Competent” on a particular criterion after three reassessment activities/assignments will be academically dismissed from the program.

e. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a fourth rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” and after undergoing the remediation process outlined in c. above, will be academically dismissed from the program.

Academic Dismissal

1. The following will result in academic dismissal:

a. failure to achieve a grade of 50% in any course taken for credit.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of: (i) at least 55% in semester 1 of year 1, and (ii) at least 60% in any semester (other than semester 1 of year 1) in years 1-3.

c. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of a probationary period in year 1-3 or return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation in years 1-3.

d. “Failing Performance” in a single rotation that is not successfully repeated in year 4.

e. “Failing Performance” in a second rotation after successfully repeating a first failed rotation in year 4.

f. receive 9 or more rotation credit hours of a “Marginal Performance” in year 4. NOTE: Weighted averages are not rounded up.

g. receive a “Marginal” rating after three reassessment activities for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion in year 4.

h. receive a “Marginal” rating for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion on a fourth rotation after successfully remediating that criterion in year 4.

Petition for Readmission
1. Dismissed students may petition the Dean for readmission to the program. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in years 1-3 will normally be required to:
a. repeat all courses in the semester in question if dismissed for failing one or more courses.
b. repeat all courses in the academic year in question if dismissed for failing to attain a weighted average of at least 60% in years 1-3.
c. re-enter the program at the beginning of the academic year in which they were first placed on probation if dismissed for failing to achieve the required weighted average of at least 65% at the end of a two semester probationary period.

2. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in year 4 will normally be required to repeat year 4.

SUPPLEMENTAL EXAMINATION
A supplemental examination provides an opportunity for a student who failed a course to be re-examined in that course.

With the exclusion of certain specified courses (see list below), a student who fails a course in years 1-3 of the DVM program will be granted a supplemental examination if the following criteria are met:

a. a student will be granted only two (2) supplemental examinations in the DVM program.

b. to be eligible for a supplemental examination the overall course grade, including performance in the final examination, must be at least 40%.

c. the maximum grade attainable in a course or course component (as specified by the course coordinator) in which a supplemental examination is written shall be 50%.

d. if the maximum grade of 50%, attainable in a course in which a supplemental examination is written, contributes to a weighted average that will allow the student to remain in the program.

The scope of the supplemental examination is at the discretion of the course coordinator and will be communicated to the student in advance. In order to pass the supplemental examination, the student must achieve a grade of at least 60% in that exam.

A student who fails a course in semester 1, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be required to write the examination before being permitted to continue with courses in semester 2 of the DVM program. A student who fails a course in semester 2 of the DVM program, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be expected to write the examination no later than the end of the third week of May.

Supplemental examinations are not offered in the following courses:
a. Clinical rotations in Year 4.
b.  VHM 124 Clinical Orientation I, VHM 251 Clinical Orientation II, VCA 340 Surgical Exercises in Companion Animals, VHM 324 Clinical Techniques in Large Animals, VHM 337 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 338 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 343 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques, VHM 346 Techniques in Advanced Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery, VHM 348 Techniques in Equine Surgery and Anaesthesia, VHM 351 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal diseases, and VHM 353 Techniques in Integrative Medicine.

ATTENDANCE POLICY

Lectures and Laboratories
Student attendance at didactic lectures and laboratories is strongly encouraged but not mandated. Individual course coordinators may choose to make attendance mandatory for a particular course or course component, and points may be assigned based on attendance. If attendance at didactic lectures or laboratories is required for an individual course, it must be specified in the course outline. Submission of a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form is not required for missed lectures or laboratories, unless mandated by a particular course coordinator.

Assessments
1. Student attendance at scheduled quizzes, in-class or in-lab graded learning experiences, and midterm and final examinations is required. Permission to make-up missed work involving any of these will be granted for excused absences only. Excused absences may be planned or unplanned. In the event of an excused absence, the instructor may provide a make-up assignment or examination that is different from the one given during regularly scheduled class time.

2. Unplanned absences are due to unavoidable, unpredictable circumstances and include illness, family emergency, or death in the family. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. The student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work. In emergency situations, the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs may be contacted to assist with these arrangements.

a.  If the student is able, he/she should complete a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form before the day of missed work and submit it to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs. If this is not possible, the student should contact the Office by phone at (902) 894-2827, or email (avc-acad-stu@upei.ca) as soon as possible. The Office will contact the necessary course coordinator(s) to notify them of the student’s absence. In the case of illness, a doctor’s certificate may also be required at the discretion of the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs.

3. Planned absences may be excused when they are for legitimate reasons and when the appropriate procedure for requesting permission has been followed. Legitimate reasons for planned absences include attendance at a scientific meeting where the student is making a scholarly presentation, receiving an award, or representing the AVC in an officially approved capacity; or in observance of a religious holiday. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. If a planned absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

a.  Adequate documentation detailing the reason for the absence must be provided and a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form must be submitted to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs within the first three weeks of the semester and at least four weeks prior to the planned absence. Students will be notified of the decision regarding their request by the Office of the Academic and Student Affairs.  Students should not schedule travel without prior approval and incurred travel expenses do not in themselves warrant an excused absence .

4. Absences not falling into one of the above categories will be considered on a case-by-case basis according to their merit. Students should follow the procedure outlined above for requesting an excused absence. If the absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

Consequences of Unexcused Absences

  1. In the event that a quiz, in-class or in-lab graded assignment, or midterm examination is missed and the absence was unexcused, the student will be assigned a grade of zero for the missed work. In the case of multiple absences, the student may be withdrawn from the course and assigned a grade of F.
  2. In the case of missed final examinations academic regulations 13b (Special Examinations and Missed Final Examinations), and 10e (Incomplete Courses) in the UPEI calendar apply.

Clinical Rotations

  1. Attendance in clinical rotations is mandatory. In total, eight personal days are allowed during the fourth year. Examples of personal days include, but are not limited to, job interviews, personal or family illness, attendance at scientific meetings, etc.
  2. All absences must be excused by the rotation coordinator and duty clinician.
  3. In all cases of missed rotation days, students must complete a “Clinical Rotation Absence Request” form and have it signed by the rotation coordinator and, if applicable, the duty clinician. A copy of the form will be forwarded by the rotation coordinator to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs so that a central record of absences can be kept.
  4. Make-up of missed clinical experiences is normally not required for absences of up to 15% of the rotation duration. The Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs will notify rotation coordinators of total absences in excess of eight personal days and coordinate make-up of missed clinical experiences.

For the complete admission and application requirements, including how to determine your province of residence, please visit the Admission Requirements page using the link on the right of this page.

Course Structure

First Year 

Semester 1
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I 2 5 4
VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I 1 2 2
VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare 2 0 2
VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research 1 0 1
VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I 1 2 2
VBS 1210 Physiology I 2 0 2
VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I 0 5 2
VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems 2 1 2
VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology 2 1 2
  13 16 19

Semester 2
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II 2 5 4
VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II 1.4 1.7 3
VBS 1220 Physiology II 2 0 2
VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II 0 3 1
VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology 2 1 2
VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I 0 3 1
VPM 1220 Parasitology 2 2 3
VPM 1520 General Pathology 2 2 3
  11.4 17.7 19


Second Year
Semester 3
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I 3 1 3
VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I 1 1 1
VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health 2 0 2
VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine 1 1 1
VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II    1 2 1
VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology        3 2 4
VPM 2110 Virology 2 2 3
VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I 2 2 3
VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II 1 2 2
  16 13 20

Semester 4
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II 1 1 1
VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology 2 1 2
VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II 1 1 1
VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine  2 0 2
VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I 2 0 2
VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III 0 4 1
VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology 1 0 1
VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II 2 2 3
VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology 2 2 3
VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health 1 0 1
  17 11 20

THE THIRD YEAR

The third year of the DVM program consists of core and elective courses. Students are required to take all of the core courses and at least 16 credit hours of elective courses. The majority of elective courses are delivered in 5 week modules (M) in semester 6.

Third Year
Semester 5
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II 1 0 1
VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine 4 0 4
VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery 4 0 4
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 0
VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease 5 0 5
VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease 4 0 4
VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV 0 3 1
VHM 3630 Professional Foundations M 0 1
  18 5 20

Elective(s)

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology 1 0 1
VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 1 0 1
VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine 1 0 1

Semester 6
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 2
VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV 0 1 0.5
  0 3 2.5
Elective (s)      
VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine M 0 1.5
VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology M 0 1

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals

M   0.5
VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition M   0.5

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production

M   1.0

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lameness, Welfare and Cow Comfort

M   0.5
VHM 3290 Topics in Poultry and Swine M   0.5
VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants     1.0
VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Animals and the Ecosystem M   1.0
VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine M   1.0
VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine M   0.5
VHM 3450 Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery  M   0.5

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5
VHM 3470 Equine Anaesthesia, Surgery and Lameness M   1.5

VHM 3480 Techniques in Equine Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases

M   0.5
VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5

M designates modular course format

     

THE FOURTH YEAR

The fourth year of the DVM program consists of at least 41 semester-hours of credit comprising:

  • one two-semester-hour didactic course (VHM 4110)
  • 24 semester-hours (24 weeks) of core clinical rotations
  • at least 15 semester-hours (15 weeks) of elective clinical rotations.

Fourth Year
Semester 7 or 8
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VHM 4110 Clinical Conference 0 2 2

Clinical rotations in Fourth Year must consist of at least 39 semester-hours of credit selected from among approved one-to three-credit-hour core and elective rotations. Fourth-year rotations require a minimum time commitment of 28 hours per week of each student, and emergency and out-of-hours duties may be required. Normally, one week of fourth-year rotation experience equates to one semester-hour of credit.

Fourth-year rotation selections comprising the required 39 semester-hours of credit must meet the following criteria:

  • All students must take a core consisting of 24 semester-hours (weeks) of internal rotations as follows:

a. Clinics in Radiology (VCA 4400)—3 weeks
b. Clinics in Anaesthesiology (VCA 4000) —3 weeks
c. Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine (VCA 4100)—3 weeks 
d. Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery (VCA 4300)—3 weeks
e. Communit Practice (VCA 4340)—3 weeks
f.  Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (VHM 4600)—3 weeks
g. Large Animal Health Management (VHM 4230)—3 weeks
h. Diagnostic Services (VPM 4500)—3 weeks

  • 27 semester-hours of credit must consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC.
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), 
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC, and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), and/or external clinical experiences in general private practice (VCA 4940, VHM 4940).

Students are required to select rotations from the following list:

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
VBS 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VBS 4950 Special Topics in Biomedical Sciences
VCA 4020 Clinics in Anaesthesiology II 
VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II 
VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology 
VCA 4750 Client Communications
VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology 
VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology 
VCA 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VCA 4940 External Clinical Experience-General Private Practice
VCA 4950 Special Topics in Companion Animals
VHM 4010 Career and Practice Management
VHM 4020 Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4040 Aquaculture Health Management I 
VHM 4050 Aquaculture Health Management II 
VHM 4060 Topics in Regulatory Veterinary Epidemiology
VHM 4120 Animal Welfare Assessment & Regulations
VHM 4130 Fish Health
VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminants and Swine I 
VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service—Dairy 
VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
VHM 4360 Clinics in Farm Services—Swine 
VHM 4380 Ecosystem Health—Case Studies
VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminants and Swine II 
VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service—Feedlot Management
VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Nutrition
VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Mastitis
VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine & Surgery II
VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
VHM 4810 Clinics in Ruminant Medicine and Surgery Rotation at the University of Montreal – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (English Rotation)
VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques (Cooperative Section)
VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture (cooperative section)
VHM 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
VHM 4940 External Clinical Experience—General Private Practice
VHM 4950 Special Topics in Health Management
VPM 4100 International Veterinary Medicine
VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
VPM 4220 Foreign Animal Diseases with Practicum
VPM 4300 Clinical Virology
VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
VPM 4720 Wildlife Health
VPM 4900 External Clinical Experience—Institutional or Specialist Practice
VPM 4950 Special Topics in Pathology and Microbiology

Faculty

Biomedical Sciences Faculty

Amreek Singh, Professor Emeritus
Jonathan Spears, Associate Professor, Chair
Luis A. Bate, Professor
Susan D. Dawson, Professor
Spencer J. Greenwood, Professor
Collins Kamunde, Professor
Russell Kerr, Professor
R. Andrew Tasker, Professor
Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
William Whelan, Professor
Glenda M. Wright, Professor
Sunny Hartwig, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Tammy Muirhead, Associate Professor
John Burka, Adjunct Professor
Dounia Daoud, Adjunct Professor
Daphne Gill, Adjunct Professor
Brad Halti, Adjunct Professor
Okey Igboeli, Adjunct Professor
Michelle Patterson, Adjunct Professor
Harold Robertson, Adjunct Professor
Don Stevens, Adjunct Professor
Jackalina VanKampen, Adjunct Professor
Yanwen Wang, Adjunct Professor

Companion Animals Faculty

Stephanie M. Hamilton, Associate Professor, Chair
Etienne Côté, Professor
Hans C.J. Gelens, Professor
Leigh Lamont, Associate Professor
David C. Seeler, Associate Professor
Pierre Amsellem, Assistant Professor
Shiori Arai, Assistant Professor
Catherine Creighton, Assistant Professor
James Dundas, Assistant Professor
Peter Foley, Assistant Professor
Peter Moak, Assistant Professor
Oriana Raab, Assistant Professor
Christine Savidge, Assistant Professor
Tonya Stewart, Assistant Professor
Anne Marie Carey, Lecturer
Kathy Ling, Lecturer
Michael West, Lecturer
Marti Hopson, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Charlotte Pye, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Darcy Shaw, Adjunct Professor

Health Management Faculty

Ian Dohoo, Professor Emeritus
Lawrence E. Heider, Professor Emeritus
Timothy Ogilvie, Professor Emeritus
Daniel Hurnik, Professor, Chair
Michael Cockram, Professor
T. Jeffrey Davidson, Professor
Wendy Duckett, Professor
Ian Gardner, Professor
Larry Hammell, Professor
Gregory Keefe, Professor
Jeanne Lofstedt, Professor
J.T. McClure, Professor
Laurie McDuffee, Professor
Mary A. McNiven, Professor
Crawford Revie, Professor
Henrik E. Stryhn, Professor
John VanLeeuwen, Professor
Aimie Doyle, Associate Professor
Shawn McKenna, Associate Professor
Arthur Ortenburger, Associate Professor
Javier Sanchez, Associate Professor
Sophie St-Hilaire, Associate Professor
Brownyn Crane, Assistant Professor
Luke Heider, Assistant Professor
Kathleen MacMillan, Assistant Professor
Martha Mellish, Assistant Professor
Herman Barkema, Adjunct Professor
Vaughn Black, Adjunct Professor
Visanu Boonyawiwat, Adjunct Professor
David Buckeridge, Adjunct Professor
Ebo Budo-Amoako, Adjunct Professor
Marguerite Cameron, Adjunct Professor
Alejandro Ceballos, Adjunct Professor
Marcello Chaffer, Adjunct Professor
Jette Christensen, Adjunct Professor
Seongbeom Cho, Adjunct Professor
Thierry Chopin, Adjunct Professor
Luc Comeau, Adjunct Professor
Ruth Cox, Adjunct Professor
Simon Dufour, Adjunct Professor
Andre Dumas, Adjunct Professor
Ronald Erskine, Adjunct Professor
George Gitau, Adjunct Professor
Stewart Johnson, Adjunct Professor
David Kelton, Adjunct Professor
Thomas Landry, Adjunct Professor
Andrea Locke, Adjunct Professor
Rob Lofstedt, Adjunct Professor
Carol McClure, Adjunct Professor
Paula Menzies, Adjunct Professor
Suzanne Millman, Adjunct Professor
Doug Munroe, Adjunct Professor
Cordell Neudorf, Adjunct Professor
Zvonimir Poljak, Adjunct Professor
Jacqueline Quail, Adjunct Professor
Erin Rees, Adjunct Professor
Nancy Rheault, Adjunct Professor
Chris Riley, Adjunct Professor
Jean-Philipe Roy, Adjunct Professor
Lauranne Sanderson, Adjunct Professor
Shayan Sharf, Adjunct Professor
Anthony Shaw, Adjunct Professor
Victor Tsuma, Adjunct Professor
Fabienne Uehlinger, Adjunct Professor
Raphael Vanderstichel, Adjunct Professor
Paul Veugelers, Adjunct Professor
Scott J. Weese, Adjunct Professor
Jeffrey Wichtel, Adjunct Professor
Maureen Wichtel, Adjunct Professor

Pathology and Microbiology Faculty

Gerry Johnson, Professor Emeritus
Alfonso Lopez, Professor Emeritus
Frederick S.B. Kibenge, Professor, Chair
Shelley A. Burton, Professor
Gary A. Conboy, Professor
Pierre-Yves Daoust, Professor
David J. Speare, Professor
Mark Fast, Associate Professor
Cornelia V. Gilroy, Associate Professor
Paul E.A. Hanna, Associate Professor
P. Jeffrey Lewis, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Anne Muckle, Associate Professor
Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Associate Professor
Noel Clancy, Assistant Professor
Chelsea Martin, Assistant Professor
Shannon Martinson, Assistant Professor
Andrea Bourque, Adjunct Professor
Mark Braceland, Adjunct Professor
María Forzán, Adjunct Professor
Salvatore Frasca, Adjunct Professor
Catherine Graham, Adjunct Professor
David Groman, Adjunct Professor
Tiago Hori, Adjunct Professor
Barb Horney, Adjunct Professor
Gerry Johnson, Adjunct Professor
Molly Kibenge, Adjunct Professor
Vett Lloyd, Adjunct Professor
Alfonso López, Adjunct Professor
R.J. Frederick Markham, Adjunct Professor
Scott McBurney, Adjunct Professor
Ahmen Siah, Adjunct Professor
Yingwei Wang, Adjunct Professor
Shona Whyte, Adjunct Professor
Samuel Workenhe, Adjunct Professor
Huimin Xu, Adjunct Professor
Carmencita Yason, Adjunct Professor

DVM Program

The DVM program at the Atlantic Veterinary College is fully accredited by the Canadian and American Veterinary Medical Associations, and is recognized by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Our highly sought after graduates are eligible for licensure in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. They consistently achieve high success rates in licensing examinations and have excellent employment opportunities worldwide.

“The AVC is committed to producing graduates with the knowledge, skills, aptitudes, and attitudes to become proficient entry-level veterinarians in multi-species clinical practice, with the flexibility to pursue a variety of focused opportunities in clinical practice or other career tracks available to the veterinary profession.”

The DVM curriculum is four years in duration consisting of three preclinical years followed by one clinical year. It combines a broad based, multispecies core with elective opportunities that allow students to shape their own career paths in Years 3 and 4.

All Year 1 courses are required and include instruction in the basic science disciplines with a focus on normal form and function with opportunities for integrated problem-based learning. Coursework in animal behaviour, welfare and production systems, as well as epidemiology and critical reasoning is included. Basic clinical skills including animal restraint and handling are also introduced with opportunities to interact with faculty, staff and senior students in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Year 1 also includes a course in fundamental research principles, and expanded opportunities to explore concepts related to professional identity and develop skills such as reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being.

All Year 2 courses are required and include instruction in disease processes and agents as well as public health and evidence-based medicine. Course work in clinical disciplines such as medicine, surgery, anesthesia, diagnostic imaging, theriogenology, and primary care practice is introduced as well as training in related clinical skills. In addition, a course that builds on Year 1 content in the Professional Foundations strand offers opportunities related to ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, leadership, and clinical communication skills.

Year 3 transitions to a core-elective structure for both large and small animal disciplines with the majority of core coursework occurring in semester one and the majority of elective courses offered in semester two in a series of five week modules. Year 3 core courses address fundamental knowledge and skills in large and small animals, including decision-making for both well and sick animals. Year 3 electives are designed to give students added flexibility and allow them opportunities to focus on a particular species or career interest beyond the core curriculum.

In Year 4 students are required to participate in at least 39 weeks of clinical rotations and a 2-credit seminar-based course entitled Clinical Conference. Clinical rotations offer students the opportunity to apply their veterinary medical and professional knowledge and skills under the mentorship of experienced faculty members. Each rotation ranges in duration from one to three weeks and one week of rotation equates to one academic credit. Students are required to take a common core of eight three week rotations including Anesthesiology, Radiology, Companion Animal Medicine, Companion Animal Surgery, Community Practice, Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, Large Animal Health Management, and Diagnostic Services. Beyond this core, students must take an additional three weeks of more specialized internal electives, while the remaining twelve weeks of electives may be any combination of internal or approved external rotations.

Dr. Leigh Lamont
Associate Dean, Academic and Student Affairs

Academic Requirements

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS—DVM

REGULATIONS

Course Load and Course Prerequisites
Except in rare circumstances, each student will take a full course load each year. Students must pass prerequisite courses prior to enrolling in courses which require a listed prerequisite.

Materials in Exams
No materials of any kind, other than pencils and pens, may be brought into an examination room without explicit permission of the course coordinator.

Pass-Fail Option
The pass-fail option for courses (Academic Regulation 10c) will apply in the DVM Program only in certain specified courses at the recommendation of the course coordinator and upon approval of the AVC Curriculum Committee and AVC Dean’s Council.

Grading in Year 4
Internal and external courses (rotations) in year 4 are graded according to the following 3 point scale:

  1. Passing Performance - achieves entry-level competency.
  2. Marginal Performance - approaches entry-level competency.
  3. Failing Performance - does not achieve entry-level competency.

Challenge for Credit by Examination
Challenge for credit by examination is normally not permitted in the DVM Program. Students who are able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the relevant chair that they have previously taken an equivalent course at the Atlantic Veterinary College, may challenge for credit by examination as outlined in Academic Regulation 15.

Advancement and Probation
Years 1 - 3
In Years 1 – 3, student success is measured by both course grades and semester weighted averages. In order to advance to the next semester a student must:
1. achieve a grade of at least 50% in all courses taken for credit, regardless of the total number of credits taken. In any multicomponent course a passing grade will be assigned only if each component identified by the course coordinator (e.g., laboratory and didactic sections) has been successfully completed.
2. achieve a weighted average of at least 65%. However, a student with a weighted average of at least 55% but under 65% in first semester of year 1, and at least 60% but under 65% in all other semesters, will be placed on academic probation and allowed to advance.

NOTE:  Weighted averages are not rounded up. The following criteria will apply to a student on academic probation:

a. the student will be permitted only one probationary period (up to a maximum duration of 2 semesters) in the DVM program.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of the probationary period will result in academic dismissal.

c. return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation will result in academic dismissal.

d. except with permission of the Dean, or designate, a student cannot advance to year 4 without a weighted average of at least 65%.

Year 4
In Year 4 student success is measured by both clinical rotation grades and programmatic outcomes tracked across rotations.

1.  Regarding clinical rotation grades:

a.  A student must achieve a “Passing Performance” in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in one 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 3 weeks, will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal Performance” but will be allowed to advance.

b.  A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a second 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 6 weeks, must develop and execute a remediation plan to address noted deficiencies. Once the plan is approved by the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs, the student will be allowed to advance.

c. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a third 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equaling 9 weeks, will be academically dismissed from the program.

d.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a rotation will be required to successfully repeat the failed rotation or complete an equivalent alternative experience (approved by the course coordinator of the failed rotation and Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs). The performance assessment attained in the repeated rotation will be recorded on the student’s transcript.  A students who is unsuccessful when repeating the rotation will be academically dismissed from the program.

e.  A student with a “Failing Performance” in a second rotation, after successfully repeating a first failed rotation, will be academically dismissed from the program.

2.  Regarding programmatic outcomes:

a. A student must consistently attain ratings of “Competent” or better for all criteria on the Evaluation of Student Performance in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on a single criterion, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance”, will be allowed to advance.

b. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on two different rotations, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal” ratings but will be allowed to advance.

c.  A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a third rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” must develop and execute a remediation plan to address deficiencies on future rotations or undergo reassessment of the deficient criterion. The decision regarding whether a student may remediate the criterion on a future rotation or be required to undergo reassessment will be made collaboratively by the course coordinators of the eight core rotations and the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs. Reassessment of the deficient criterion may involve written and/or oral presentation of clinical cases, demonstration of specific clinical skills, or a combination of multiple formats. The reassessment activity/assignment will be designed, administered and evaluated by an independent faculty member. The student must achieve a rating of at least “Competent” on the reassessment activity/assignment in order to be considered to have achieved the criterion in question. 

d.  A student achieving a rating of “Marginal” after reassessment of a deficient criterion will be provided with further time and mentoring and will be reassessed a second and, if necessary, a third time. A student who fails to achieve a rating of “Competent” on a particular criterion after three reassessment activities/assignments will be academically dismissed from the program.

e. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a fourth rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” and after undergoing the remediation process outlined in c. above, will be academically dismissed from the program.

Academic Dismissal

1. The following will result in academic dismissal:

a. failure to achieve a grade of 50% in any course taken for credit.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of: (i) at least 55% in semester 1 of year 1, and (ii) at least 60% in any semester (other than semester 1 of year 1) in years 1-3.

c. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of a probationary period in year 1-3 or return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation in years 1-3.

d. “Failing Performance” in a single rotation that is not successfully repeated in year 4.

e. “Failing Performance” in a second rotation after successfully repeating a first failed rotation in year 4.

f. receive 9 or more rotation credit hours of a “Marginal Performance” in year 4. NOTE: Weighted averages are not rounded up.

g. receive a “Marginal” rating after three reassessment activities for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion in year 4.

h. receive a “Marginal” rating for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion on a fourth rotation after successfully remediating that criterion in year 4.

Petition for Readmission
1. Dismissed students may petition the Dean for readmission to the program. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in years 1-3 will normally be required to:
a. repeat all courses in the semester in question if dismissed for failing one or more courses.
b. repeat all courses in the academic year in question if dismissed for failing to attain a weighted average of at least 60% in years 1-3.
c. re-enter the program at the beginning of the academic year in which they were first placed on probation if dismissed for failing to achieve the required weighted average of at least 65% at the end of a two semester probationary period.

2. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in year 4 will normally be required to repeat year 4.

SUPPLEMENTAL EXAMINATION
A supplemental examination provides an opportunity for a student who failed a course to be re-examined in that course.

With the exclusion of certain specified courses (see list below), a student who fails a course in years 1-3 of the DVM program will be granted a supplemental examination if the following criteria are met:

a. a student will be granted only two (2) supplemental examinations in the DVM program.

b. to be eligible for a supplemental examination the overall course grade, including performance in the final examination, must be at least 40%.

c. the maximum grade attainable in a course or course component (as specified by the course coordinator) in which a supplemental examination is written shall be 50%.

d. if the maximum grade of 50%, attainable in a course in which a supplemental examination is written, contributes to a weighted average that will allow the student to remain in the program.

The scope of the supplemental examination is at the discretion of the course coordinator and will be communicated to the student in advance. In order to pass the supplemental examination, the student must achieve a grade of at least 60% in that exam.

A student who fails a course in semester 1, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be required to write the examination before being permitted to continue with courses in semester 2 of the DVM program. A student who fails a course in semester 2 of the DVM program, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be expected to write the examination no later than the end of the third week of May.

Supplemental examinations are not offered in the following courses:
a. Clinical rotations in Year 4.
b.  VHM 124 Clinical Orientation I, VHM 251 Clinical Orientation II, VCA 340 Surgical Exercises in Companion Animals, VHM 324 Clinical Techniques in Large Animals, VHM 337 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 338 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques, VHM 343 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques, VHM 346 Techniques in Advanced Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery, VHM 348 Techniques in Equine Surgery and Anaesthesia, VHM 351 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal diseases, and VHM 353 Techniques in Integrative Medicine.

ATTENDANCE POLICY

Lectures and Laboratories
Student attendance at didactic lectures and laboratories is strongly encouraged but not mandated. Individual course coordinators may choose to make attendance mandatory for a particular course or course component, and points may be assigned based on attendance. If attendance at didactic lectures or laboratories is required for an individual course, it must be specified in the course outline. Submission of a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form is not required for missed lectures or laboratories, unless mandated by a particular course coordinator.

Assessments
1. Student attendance at scheduled quizzes, in-class or in-lab graded learning experiences, and midterm and final examinations is required. Permission to make-up missed work involving any of these will be granted for excused absences only. Excused absences may be planned or unplanned. In the event of an excused absence, the instructor may provide a make-up assignment or examination that is different from the one given during regularly scheduled class time.

2. Unplanned absences are due to unavoidable, unpredictable circumstances and include illness, family emergency, or death in the family. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. The student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work. In emergency situations, the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs may be contacted to assist with these arrangements.

a.  If the student is able, he/she should complete a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form before the day of missed work and submit it to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs. If this is not possible, the student should contact the Office by phone at (902) 894-2827, or email (avc-acad-stu@upei.ca) as soon as possible. The Office will contact the necessary course coordinator(s) to notify them of the student’s absence. In the case of illness, a doctor’s certificate may also be required at the discretion of the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs.

3. Planned absences may be excused when they are for legitimate reasons and when the appropriate procedure for requesting permission has been followed. Legitimate reasons for planned absences include attendance at a scientific meeting where the student is making a scholarly presentation, receiving an award, or representing the AVC in an officially approved capacity; or in observance of a religious holiday. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. If a planned absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

a.  Adequate documentation detailing the reason for the absence must be provided and a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form must be submitted to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs within the first three weeks of the semester and at least four weeks prior to the planned absence. Students will be notified of the decision regarding their request by the Office of the Academic and Student Affairs.  Students should not schedule travel without prior approval and incurred travel expenses do not in themselves warrant an excused absence .

4. Absences not falling into one of the above categories will be considered on a case-by-case basis according to their merit. Students should follow the procedure outlined above for requesting an excused absence. If the absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

Consequences of Unexcused Absences

  1. In the event that a quiz, in-class or in-lab graded assignment, or midterm examination is missed and the absence was unexcused, the student will be assigned a grade of zero for the missed work. In the case of multiple absences, the student may be withdrawn from the course and assigned a grade of F.
  2. In the case of missed final examinations academic regulations 13b (Special Examinations and Missed Final Examinations), and 10e (Incomplete Courses) in the UPEI calendar apply.

Clinical Rotations

  1. Attendance in clinical rotations is mandatory. In total, eight personal days are allowed during the fourth year. Examples of personal days include, but are not limited to, job interviews, personal or family illness, attendance at scientific meetings, etc.
  2. All absences must be excused by the rotation coordinator and duty clinician.
  3. In all cases of missed rotation days, students must complete a “Clinical Rotation Absence Request” form and have it signed by the rotation coordinator and, if applicable, the duty clinician. A copy of the form will be forwarded by the rotation coordinator to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs so that a central record of absences can be kept.
  4. Make-up of missed clinical experiences is normally not required for absences of up to 15% of the rotation duration. The Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs will notify rotation coordinators of total absences in excess of eight personal days and coordinate make-up of missed clinical experiences.

For the complete admission and application requirements, including how to determine your province of residence, please visit the Admission Requirements page using the link on the right of this page.

Course Structure

First Year 

Semester 1
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I 2 5 4
VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I 1 2 2
VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare 2 0 2
VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research 1 0 1
VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I 1 2 2
VBS 1210 Physiology I 2 0 2
VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I 0 5 2
VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems 2 1 2
VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology 2 1 2
  13 16 19

Semester 2
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II 2 5 4
VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II 1.4 1.7 3
VBS 1220 Physiology II 2 0 2
VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II 0 3 1
VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology 2 1 2
VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I 0 3 1
VPM 1220 Parasitology 2 2 3
VPM 1520 General Pathology 2 2 3
  11.4 17.7 19


Second Year
Semester 3
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I 3 1 3
VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I 1 1 1
VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health 2 0 2
VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine 1 1 1
VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II    1 2 1
VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology        3 2 4
VPM 2110 Virology 2 2 3
VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I 2 2 3
VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II 1 2 2
  16 13 20

Semester 4
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II 1 1 1
VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology 2 1 2
VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II 1 1 1
VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine  2 0 2
VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I 2 0 2
VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III 0 4 1
VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology 1 0 1
VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II 2 2 3
VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology 2 2 3
VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health 1 0 1
  17 11 20

THE THIRD YEAR

The third year of the DVM program consists of core and elective courses. Students are required to take all of the core courses and at least 16 credit hours of elective courses. The majority of elective courses are delivered in 5 week modules (M) in semester 6.

Third Year
Semester 5
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II 1 0 1
VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine 4 0 4
VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery 4 0 4
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 0
VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease 5 0 5
VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease 4 0 4
VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV 0 3 1
VHM 3630 Professional Foundations M 0 1
  18 5 20

Elective(s)

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology 1 0 1
VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 1 0 1
VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine 1 0 1

Semester 6
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 2
VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV 0 1 0.5
  0 3 2.5
Elective (s)      
VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine M 0 1.5
VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology M 0 1

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals

M   0.5
VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition M   0.5

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production

M   1.0

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lameness, Welfare and Cow Comfort

M   0.5
VHM 3290 Topics in Poultry and Swine M   0.5
VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants     1.0
VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Animals and the Ecosystem M   1.0
VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine M   1.0
VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine M   0.5
VHM 3450 Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery  M   0.5

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5
VHM 3470 Equine Anaesthesia, Surgery and Lameness M   1.5

VHM 3480 Techniques in Equine Anaesthesia and Surgery

M   0.5

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases

M   0.5
VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5
VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology M   0.5
VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques M   0.5

M designates modular course format

     

THE FOURTH YEAR

The fourth year of the DVM program consists of at least 41 semester-hours of credit comprising:

  • one two-semester-hour didactic course (VHM 4110)
  • 24 semester-hours (24 weeks) of core clinical rotations
  • at least 15 semester-hours (15 weeks) of elective clinical rotations.

Fourth Year
Semester 7 or 8
Weekly Contact

Course Lecture Lab Credit
VHM 4110 Clinical Conference 0 2 2

Clinical rotations in Fourth Year must consist of at least 39 semester-hours of credit selected from among approved one-to three-credit-hour core and elective rotations. Fourth-year rotations require a minimum time commitment of 28 hours per week of each student, and emergency and out-of-hours duties may be required. Normally, one week of fourth-year rotation experience equates to one semester-hour of credit.

Fourth-year rotation selections comprising the required 39 semester-hours of credit must meet the following criteria:

  • All students must take a core consisting of 24 semester-hours (weeks) of internal rotations as follows:

a. Clinics in Radiology (VCA 4400)—3 weeks
b. Clinics in Anaesthesiology (VCA 4000) —3 weeks
c. Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine (VCA 4100)—3 weeks 
d. Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery (VCA 4300)—3 weeks
e. Communit Practice (VCA 4340)—3 weeks
f.  Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (VHM 4600)—3 weeks
g. Large Animal Health Management (VHM 4230)—3 weeks
h. Diagnostic Services (VPM 4500)—3 weeks

  • 27 semester-hours of credit must consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC.
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), 
  • 6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC, and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), and/or external clinical experiences in general private practice (VCA 4940, VHM 4940).

Students are required to select rotations from the following list:

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
VBS 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VBS 4950 Special Topics in Biomedical Sciences
VCA 4020 Clinics in Anaesthesiology II 
VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II 
VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology 
VCA 4750 Client Communications
VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology 
VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology 
VCA 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VCA 4940 External Clinical Experience-General Private Practice
VCA 4950 Special Topics in Companion Animals
VHM 4010 Career and Practice Management
VHM 4020 Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4040 Aquaculture Health Management I 
VHM 4050 Aquaculture Health Management II 
VHM 4060 Topics in Regulatory Veterinary Epidemiology
VHM 4120 Animal Welfare Assessment & Regulations
VHM 4130 Fish Health
VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminants and Swine I 
VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service—Dairy 
VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
VHM 4360 Clinics in Farm Services—Swine 
VHM 4380 Ecosystem Health—Case Studies
VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminants and Swine II 
VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service—Feedlot Management
VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Nutrition
VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Mastitis
VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine & Surgery II
VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
VHM 4810 Clinics in Ruminant Medicine and Surgery Rotation at the University of Montreal – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (English Rotation)
VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques (Cooperative Section)
VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture (cooperative section)
VHM 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
VHM 4940 External Clinical Experience—General Private Practice
VHM 4950 Special Topics in Health Management
VPM 4100 International Veterinary Medicine
VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
VPM 4220 Foreign Animal Diseases with Practicum
VPM 4300 Clinical Virology
VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
VPM 4720 Wildlife Health
VPM 4900 External Clinical Experience—Institutional or Specialist Practice
VPM 4950 Special Topics in Pathology and Microbiology

Faculty

Biomedical Sciences Faculty

Amreek Singh, Professor Emeritus
Jonathan Spears, Associate Professor, Chair
Luis A. Bate, Professor
Susan D. Dawson, Professor
Spencer J. Greenwood, Professor
Collins Kamunde, Professor
Russell Kerr, Professor
R. Andrew Tasker, Professor
Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
William Whelan, Professor
Glenda M. Wright, Professor
Sunny Hartwig, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Tammy Muirhead, Associate Professor
John Burka, Adjunct Professor
Dounia Daoud, Adjunct Professor
Daphne Gill, Adjunct Professor
Brad Halti, Adjunct Professor
Okey Igboeli, Adjunct Professor
Michelle Patterson, Adjunct Professor
Harold Robertson, Adjunct Professor
Don Stevens, Adjunct Professor
Jackalina VanKampen, Adjunct Professor
Yanwen Wang, Adjunct Professor

Companion Animals Faculty

Stephanie M. Hamilton, Associate Professor, Chair
Etienne Côté, Professor
Hans C.J. Gelens, Professor
Leigh Lamont, Associate Professor
David C. Seeler, Associate Professor
Pierre Amsellem, Assistant Professor
Shiori Arai, Assistant Professor
Catherine Creighton, Assistant Professor
James Dundas, Assistant Professor
Peter Foley, Assistant Professor
Peter Moak, Assistant Professor
Oriana Raab, Assistant Professor
Christine Savidge, Assistant Professor
Tonya Stewart, Assistant Professor
Anne Marie Carey, Lecturer
Kathy Ling, Lecturer
Michael West, Lecturer
Marti Hopson, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Charlotte Pye, Adjunct Assistant Professor
Darcy Shaw, Adjunct Professor

Health Management Faculty

Ian Dohoo, Professor Emeritus
Lawrence E. Heider, Professor Emeritus
Timothy Ogilvie, Professor Emeritus
Daniel Hurnik, Professor, Chair
Michael Cockram, Professor
T. Jeffrey Davidson, Professor
Wendy Duckett, Professor
Ian Gardner, Professor
Larry Hammell, Professor
Gregory Keefe, Professor
Jeanne Lofstedt, Professor
J.T. McClure, Professor
Laurie McDuffee, Professor
Mary A. McNiven, Professor
Crawford Revie, Professor
Henrik E. Stryhn, Professor
John VanLeeuwen, Professor
Aimie Doyle, Associate Professor
Shawn McKenna, Associate Professor
Arthur Ortenburger, Associate Professor
Javier Sanchez, Associate Professor
Sophie St-Hilaire, Associate Professor
Brownyn Crane, Assistant Professor
Luke Heider, Assistant Professor
Kathleen MacMillan, Assistant Professor
Martha Mellish, Assistant Professor
Herman Barkema, Adjunct Professor
Vaughn Black, Adjunct Professor
Visanu Boonyawiwat, Adjunct Professor
David Buckeridge, Adjunct Professor
Ebo Budo-Amoako, Adjunct Professor
Marguerite Cameron, Adjunct Professor
Alejandro Ceballos, Adjunct Professor
Marcello Chaffer, Adjunct Professor
Jette Christensen, Adjunct Professor
Seongbeom Cho, Adjunct Professor
Thierry Chopin, Adjunct Professor
Luc Comeau, Adjunct Professor
Ruth Cox, Adjunct Professor
Simon Dufour, Adjunct Professor
Andre Dumas, Adjunct Professor
Ronald Erskine, Adjunct Professor
George Gitau, Adjunct Professor
Stewart Johnson, Adjunct Professor
David Kelton, Adjunct Professor
Thomas Landry, Adjunct Professor
Andrea Locke, Adjunct Professor
Rob Lofstedt, Adjunct Professor
Carol McClure, Adjunct Professor
Paula Menzies, Adjunct Professor
Suzanne Millman, Adjunct Professor
Doug Munroe, Adjunct Professor
Cordell Neudorf, Adjunct Professor
Zvonimir Poljak, Adjunct Professor
Jacqueline Quail, Adjunct Professor
Erin Rees, Adjunct Professor
Nancy Rheault, Adjunct Professor
Chris Riley, Adjunct Professor
Jean-Philipe Roy, Adjunct Professor
Lauranne Sanderson, Adjunct Professor
Shayan Sharf, Adjunct Professor
Anthony Shaw, Adjunct Professor
Victor Tsuma, Adjunct Professor
Fabienne Uehlinger, Adjunct Professor
Raphael Vanderstichel, Adjunct Professor
Paul Veugelers, Adjunct Professor
Scott J. Weese, Adjunct Professor
Jeffrey Wichtel, Adjunct Professor
Maureen Wichtel, Adjunct Professor

Pathology and Microbiology Faculty

Gerry Johnson, Professor Emeritus
Alfonso Lopez, Professor Emeritus
Frederick S.B. Kibenge, Professor, Chair
Shelley A. Burton, Professor
Gary A. Conboy, Professor
Pierre-Yves Daoust, Professor
David J. Speare, Professor
Mark Fast, Associate Professor
Cornelia V. Gilroy, Associate Professor
Paul E.A. Hanna, Associate Professor
P. Jeffrey Lewis, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Anne Muckle, Associate Professor
Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Associate Professor
Noel Clancy, Assistant Professor
Chelsea Martin, Assistant Professor
Shannon Martinson, Assistant Professor
Andrea Bourque, Adjunct Professor
Mark Braceland, Adjunct Professor
María Forzán, Adjunct Professor
Salvatore Frasca, Adjunct Professor
Catherine Graham, Adjunct Professor
David Groman, Adjunct Professor
Tiago Hori, Adjunct Professor
Barb Horney, Adjunct Professor
Gerry Johnson, Adjunct Professor
Molly Kibenge, Adjunct Professor
Vett Lloyd, Adjunct Professor
Alfonso López, Adjunct Professor
R.J. Frederick Markham, Adjunct Professor
Scott McBurney, Adjunct Professor
Ahmen Siah, Adjunct Professor
Yingwei Wang, Adjunct Professor
Shona Whyte, Adjunct Professor
Samuel Workenhe, Adjunct Professor
Huimin Xu, Adjunct Professor
Carmencita Yason, Adjunct Professor

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Course Descriptions
Courses: 

VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I
This course provides a foundation in macroscopic (gross) anatomy using the dog as the primary dissection model.

VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare
This course introduces fundamental principles of animal behaviour and presents an overview of animal welfare concepts relevant to the practice of veterinary medicine.

VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research
This course presents fundamental principles of research methodology for biomedical and clinical applications in veterinary medicine including hypothesis testing and scientific approach, experimental design, dissemination of scientific results, intellectual property and research ethics.

VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I
This course introduces essential concepts that form the foundation of a veterinarian’s professional life including development of a professional identity, the roles veterinarians play in society, and development of essential skills. These skills include reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being. Current trends in the veterinary profession are also addressed. This course is graded pass/fail.

VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of basic tissues and various organ systems of domestic animals.

VBS 1210 Physiology I
The course presents important system, cell and biochemical functions in common domestic species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I
The course uses problems from small animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems
This course provides an overview of major animal industries and the role played by veterinarians in each of the industries is discussed.

VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology
This course describes events occurring during an immune response at the cellular, molecular, and clinical levels, and the role of the response in the prevention and control of infectious disease. Clinical applications relevant to veterinary medicine are discussed.

VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II
This course presents comparative macroscopic anatomy of the horse and ruminant through dissection. 

VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of various organ systems, embryonic development, and congenital anomalies of domestic animals.

VBS 1220 Physiology II
This course continues presentation of important system, cell, and biomedical functions in common species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II
This course uses problems from large animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology
This course teaches basic principles and techniques used in veterinary epidemiology with a focus on development of quantitative reasoning skills.

VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focused on developing competency in basic animal restraint and handling and fundamental clinical skills.

VPM 1220 Parasitology
The course presents principles of the developmental cycles, pathogenesis of infections, immunological responses and epidemiology of animal parasites.

VPM 1520 General Pathology
This course presents the pathologic basis of disease processes in organs and tissues of animals at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels.

VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I
This course introduces basic principles of veterinary pharmacology. Drugs are presented using a systems-based approach and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I
This course presents fundamental principles of veterinary diagnostic imaging, including radiation physics and safety, with an introduction to image analysis and interpretation.

VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health
This course discusses the role of the veterinarian, either as a private practitioner or in a regulatory context, as it relates to risk management, zoonoses, food safety, and the interrelationship of animals and the environment.

VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine
This course presents a systematic approach to searching, critical reading, and appraisal of scientific literature to enable evidence-based clinical decisions in all areas of veterinary medicine.

VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of patient-assessment skills across species

VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology
This course presents important bacterial and fungal pathogens of animals and the diseases they cause. Principles of biosafety and biosecurity are introduced and opportunities are provided to apply these principles in the laboratory.

VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II
This course builds on Professional Foundations I to engage students in topics that help them understand and develop their professional identity. Core aspects include reflective practice, ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, and leadership. Students will develop communication skills required for effective medical interviews, difficult interactions, and challenging conversations with clients. This course is graded pass/fail.

VPM 2110 Virology
This course presents important viral pathogens of animals and offers a theoretical and practical basis for understanding the diseases they cause.

VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I
This course presents the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II
This course continues the presentation of drugs using a systems-based approach and provides opportunities to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology
This course introduces basic and clinical principles of toxicology. Toxins are presented using a systems-based approach, and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine
This course introduces common disease presentations in domestic species, reviews their pathophysiologic basis, and provides a framework for problem-based clinical reasoning.

VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of basic medical, surgical and anesthetic skills.

VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II
This course builds upon previous instruction in diagnostic imaging with a focus on image analysis and interpretation of diseases processes in common domestic species.

VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I
This course introduces clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including nutrition, behaviour, and dentistry.

VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery
This course introduces the fundamental principles of surgery and surgical management with broad species applications.

VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of anesthesia and anesthetic management with broad species applications. Pain management strategies are also emphasized.

VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of theriogenology and reproductive management including a review of reproductive physiology and control of the estrous cycle in common domestic species.

VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II
This course continues to present the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology
This course presents the principles of veterinary hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and cytology, and provides opportunities to develop diagnostic reasoning and technical skills relating to clinical pathology.

VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health
This course introduces students to all aspects of aquatic veterinary medicine, including aquaculture and pet fish, with a focus on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V
This two semester course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core anesthesia and surgery skills with a small animal focus.

VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine
This course describes the common medical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II
This course introduces students to clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including vaccinology, preventive parasitology, neonatology, gerontology, and elective surgery. 

VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery
This course describes the common surgical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, reproductive, and production limiting diseases of food producing animals relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, and reproductive diseases of horses relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV
This course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core procedural skills related to medicine, surgery, and reproduction in large and small animals.

VHM 3630 Professional Foundations III
This course introduces the fundamentals of business, structure of practice, and personal financial planning for veterinary professionals. Areas relevant to the new veterinary graduate are presented including workplace environment issues, facilities and configurations, foundations of customer service and compliance, human resource and leadership issues, marketing and promotion tactics, and the transition to practice ownership. Practice finances and personal income structures, including commission based salaries and self-employed status, will be discussed.

VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV
This course builds on the capacity for reflective practice and on further developing communication and interpersonal skills. Skills related to delivering and receiving feedback will be developed. Opportunities for practice and acquiring competence in client communication skills will be a focus.

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course introduces students to a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in small animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of small animal patients with specific disease processes.

VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 
This elective course introduces students to husbandry, clinical anatomy and physiology, fundamental principles of diagnosis and management of the most common diseases in exotic pets (ferrets, rodents and other exotic mammals).

VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine
This elective course provides an introduction to some of the principle methods in integrative medicine, including acupuncture, chiropractic, and other methods.

VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine
This elective course introduces students to the basic tenets of laboratory animal medicine including ethics of animal use in biomedical research, regulatory requirements (national and international), principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement when designing studies involving animals, animal models of human conditions, animal husbandry, biological safety, and animal welfare. The remainder of the course will be directed towards prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of common clinical disease conditions in traditional and nontraditional laboratory animal species and associated clinical techniques. Comparative aspects of the biology and medicine among species and their relevance to human and veterinary conditions will be addressed. This course will provide the appropriate background for laboratory animal medicine rotations in the clinical year.

VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course allows students to develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in large animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of large animal patients.

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals
This elective modular course emphasizes current research on production limiting diseases of cattle. Topics covered are dictated primarily by issues that are current and important to the cattle industry.

VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition
This elective modular course reviews bovine nutrition and record analysis as aids for improving dairy herd productivity. It focuses on management of the herd as a whole and on utilization of data management for decision making. Nutritional management and delivery of feeding programs to optimize production are also discussed.

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production
This elective modular course reviews bovine mastitis prevention and control and issues related to milk quality. Topics include herd investigation of mastitis and udder health, management of clinical and subclinical mastitis at the herd level, laboratory testing procedures for evaluation of milk quality, evaluation of milk quality records for trouble shooting of herd problems, and implications of milk quality for the dairy industry.

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lamesness, Welfare and Cow Comfort
This elective modular course discusses bovine lameness and welfare. It focuses on prevention of lameness and issues affecting cow comfort. Accurate diagnosis of the causes of lameness, and the economic consequences of lameness and other welfare issues, are emphasized.

VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants
This elective modular course emphasizes diseases and techniques unique to small ruminants including sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas. It includes discussion of topics such as nutrition, parasite control, and reproductive management.

VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Food Animals and the Ecosystem
This elective modular course covers three components: lobster health, finfish health and ecosystem health. The lobster component reviews health issues of lobsters with an emphasis on diseases of impounded lobsters and associated risk factors, and offers a laboratory on sampling procedures for diagnostic purposes. The finfish component addresses production and health related diseases in food fish with an emphasis on farmed salmon and coldwater marine fish. Topics include disease surveillance, disease risk factors, health management methods, and interactions between farmed and wild fish populations. The ecosystem health component introduces the principles of ecohealth using current examples from agriculture, aquaculture and wildlife.

VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology
This elective modular course emphasizes approaches essential to the successful reproductive management of beef and dairy herds. Topics include investigation of herd reproductive status and problems, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies, induction of abortion and parturition, breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, and common surgeries involving the bovine reproductive tract.

VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology
This elective modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides more advanced information on equine reproduction than is available in the core equine course. Broadly speaking, topics include stud management and reproductive disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective laboratory modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides the opportunity to practice basic and more advanced equine reproductive techniques in the mare and stallion.

VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides advanced exposure to bovine reproductive techniques including evaluation of herd records, diagnostic reproductive techniques and artificial insemination techniques in cows, and evaluation of bulls for breeding soundness.

VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth discussion of equine internal medicine with an emphasis on neonatology and the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. It also covers topics such as metabolic diseases, emerging infectious diseases, cardiology and dermatology.

VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to practice a variety of medical procedures in live animals and on cadaver specimens and models. It includes techniques related to evaluation of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous systems as well as techniques in dentistry, ophthalmology, intravenous catheterization, and catheterization of the urinary bladder.

VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth review of preventative medicine in the foal and adult horse. It includes discussion of neonatal foal care, nutrition, dentistry, parasite control, biosecurity practices, and vaccination for disease prevention.

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in food animals.

VHM 3470 Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular course provides detailed descriptions of the anatomy, physiology, anesthetic protocols, and surgical techniques for common surgical conditions encountered in equine practice.

VHM 3480
Techniques in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in horses.

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to work with horses with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Physical diagnosis, diagnostic anesthesia, and imaging studies are assessed in the context of patient history and client concerns.

Note: Additional year 3 electives are currently in development.

VCA 4000 Clinics in Anaesthesiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the anaesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary anaesthesiology.

VCA 4100 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine.

VCA 4300 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery  This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Surgery section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary surgery.

VCA 4340 Community Practice This course is a clinical rotation involving the community practice aspects of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Under faculty and staff supervision, senior veterinary students will be responsible for primary care of non-referral/non-emergency medicine and surgery cases.

VCA 4400 Clinics in Radiology  This course is a clinical rotation in the radiology section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students perform and interpret various examinations in diagnostic radiology and special procedures. Some experience in alternative imaging (ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy) may be gained depending on caseload.

VHM 4230 Large Animal Health Management This is a rotation involving the Farm Service, Theriogenology, and Equine Ambulatory sections of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students will explore contemporary issues relating to food animal and equine veterinary practice. There will be a focus on development of problem solving skills as they relate to herd health management, reproductive management, and equine preventative medicine.

VHM 4600 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery This course is a clinical rotation in the Large Animal Surgery Section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students provide patient care, participate in ward rounds, and learn the routine procedures of clinical case management and decision making.

VPM 4500 Diagnostic Services
This course is a rotation in the laboratories of Diagnostic Services. Students gain practical experience in clinical diagnostics with respect to the application of techniques and the interpretation of results in the areas of pathology, clinical pathology, virology, bacteriology and parasitology.

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
In this rotation students acquire information about laboratory animal medicine as a career path and discuss the challenges and opportunities facing exotic animal and laboratory animal veterinarians. Students practice animal handling, physical examination, and routine procedures such as blood collection and administration of injections, and become familiar with common diseases of exotic pets and laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines governing animal research and the role of the veterinarian in ensuring humane methods of experimentation are discussed, as are a variety of issues pertaining to animal facilities management.

VCA 4020 Clinics in Anesthesiology II
In this rotation through the anesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia.

VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Medicine.

VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Surgery Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Surgery.

VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology
This is a clinical rotation in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary dermatologist. Students participate in the diagnosis and therapy of diseases involving the skin of companion animals.

VCA 4750 Clinics in Client Communication
This one-week clinical rotation will introduce students to communication theory, the impact of feelings, emotions, and
values on communication, and to techniques that will aid in building relationships and eliciting information from clients. Through lectures, role plays, and videotaped real client interactions, students will learn about and practice skills to more effectively communicate with clients.

VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the cardiology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary cardiology.

VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology
This is a clinical rotation in the ophthalmology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary ophthalmologist. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary ophthalmology.

VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
This course is a clinical rotation taught by veterinarians affiliated with Mark Morris Associates. Case-based discussions emphasize the role of dietary management of disease states as primary or adjunctive therapy. Currently hospitalized patients may be incorporated in case discussions.

VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on population-based problems of clinical relevance, and to develop problem solving, data management and information processing skills necessary to address veterinary medicine related problems. The projects utilize, whenever possible, existing data such as hospital records, APHIN and/or ADLIC health and production databases, research data, and other data sources. Students may elect to analyse data that they have obtained from a research or clinical practice experience. With faculty supervision, students assemble the necessary data, carry out appropriate analyses, interpret results and prepare a report of their findings. This is an abbreviated form of VHM 402, with reduced expectations of students.

VHM 4130 Fish Health
Students will gain experience in the application of veterinary skills to finfish and shellfish species found in aquaculture and public fisheries. Practical experience will include health assessments and disease diagnoses, application of treatment techniques, assessment of biosecurity practices, and development of disease prevention strategies. The course will include farm visits and laboratory testing.

VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service - Dairy
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of dairy cattle. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in both the practice of clinical veterinary medicine and in planning and delivering programs to enhance production in dairy cows.

VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
This course demonstrates the complexity of ecosystem decision making and the role of the veterinarian in the assessment, solution and possible management of ecosystem health issues. The field portion of the course involves an in-depth examination of one or several ecosystems and provides an opportunity to apply principles and methods discussed in lectures and reviewed in the literature.

VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farms, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4310.

VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service - Feedlot Management
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in cattle. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the management of health and disease on feedlot operations, including processing of calves in the fall. Students are based at Feedlot Health Management Services, Okotoks, Alberta, for the majority of this rotation, to gain experience on feedlots in Western Canada.

VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Nutrition
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for enhancing nutritional management of dairy cattle.

VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Mastitis
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle, including: evaluation of milk quality records available for trouble-shooting herd problems; evaluation of milking systems, milking time, and parlour labour efficiency; development of a milk culture service; and development of mastitis pathogen treatment and prevention strategies.

VHM 4480 Clinics in Farm Service – Ruminant Reproduction
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for ruminant reproduction, including: pregnancy diagnosis and fetal sexing using ultrasound technology, the analysis of herd level reproductive records, and other advanced techniques.

VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for general equine practice. Students participate under veterinary supervision in the provision of preventive care as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for clinical equine practice and expand their ability to diagnose and treat equine conditions as encountered in VHM 4530.

VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the farm service section of the veterinary teaching hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farm, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4550.

VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on sports medicine. Students participate under veterinary supervision in investigation of poor performance in the equine athlete as well as in diagnosis and treatment of non-performance related conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for equine practice and sports medicine and expand their ability to investigate and treat poor performance in the equine athlete as encountered in VHM 4570.

VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
This course is a clinical rotation in the equine ambulatory service of the veterinary teaching hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on reproductive services. Students participate under veterinary supervision in herd visits and breeding farm management as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery II
In this a clinical rotation, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching
Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.

VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Department of Health Management. The rotation emphasizes the procedures and techniques for providing health monitoring services for minimal disease swine farms. The student will participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, the evaluation of the health status of the farms, and consultation regarding production and health management, and disease prevention.

VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
This course provides 3 weeks of practical experience, in the context of an international development project, for veterinary students from AVC on management of small holder dairy farming in Africa, and on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of common animal diseases and dairy management problems encountered in East Africa.

VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
This course prepares students to assume the role of an Accredited Veterinarian. An Accredited Veterinarian is a veterinarian who is authorized under the Health of Animals Act to perform certain duties and functions in support of the National Animal Health Program (e.g. certifying livestock for export, Coggins testing horses). Topics covered include an orientation to the national food inspection system and the federal laboratory system. This course is a prerequisite for Accreditation with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and hence will be of interest to students considering work in the food animal, equine or regulatory sector.

VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques 
In this course students learn the fundamentals of veterinary chiropractic medicine and apply its principles to the management of patients with problems of gait, posture, and movement.  Lectures and laboratories in the biomechanics and neurophysiology of manipulative therapeutics are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by using chiropractic medicine.

VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture Techniques 
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary acupuncture, and apply its principles to the management of patients with special problems. Lectures and laboratories in the science of acupuncture are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the teaching hospital for treatment. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by acupuncture.

VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
In this course, students learn the theory and practice of disease prevention in horses, including vaccination and parasite control programs. Students practice, with faculty supervision, dental care on horses at Island facilities and in the AVC teaching barn. In-depth discussions and reviews of pertinent and timely information take place.

VHM 4810 Ruminant Medicine and Surgery - St. Hyacinthe
Students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions in ruminant animals, primarily dairy cattle, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montréal in Saint-Hyacinthe, Qúebec. The rotation emphasizes individual animal medicine and surgery. Students are expected to provide patient care, actively participate in the diagnostic, treatment, and management decisions concerning their patients, and participate in rounds and discussion topics. Duties include after hour emergency and treatment crew. This course is offered as a 3 week rotation. Instruction will be given in English. Partial student support for expenses is sought through industry sponsors.

VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
In this course, students participate in seminars, tutorials and laboratory exercises on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and control of major infectious diseases of animals in the tropics and/or countries foreign to North America. Slides and video tapes are used and students are expected to acquire up-to-date information on recent or current epidemics and on emerging diseases. Regulatory measures to prevent introduction of such diseases and to control possible outbreaks in non-endemic areas are emphasized.

VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
In this rotation, small groups of students interact directly with pathologists on post-mortem duty. Students gain practical experience in performing necropsies, evaluating histologic slides and establishing a final diagnosis.
Emphasis is placed on gross morphologic diagnosis. This rotation focuses primarily on anatomic pathology.  It is intended for those students who are interested in obtaining a solid experience in performing postmortem examinations. Taking VPM 450, in addition to this rotation, would also be valuable for those individuals truly interested in a career in pathology.
 

Calendar Courses

VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I
This course provides a foundation in macroscopic (gross) anatomy using the dog as the primary dissection model.

VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare
This course introduces fundamental principles of animal behaviour and presents an overview of animal welfare concepts relevant to the practice of veterinary medicine.

VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research
This course presents fundamental principles of research methodology for biomedical and clinical applications in veterinary medicine including hypothesis testing and scientific approach, experimental design, dissemination of scientific results, intellectual property and research ethics.

VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I
This course introduces essential concepts that form the foundation of a veterinarian’s professional life including development of a professional identity, the roles veterinarians play in society, and development of essential skills. These skills include reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being. Current trends in the veterinary profession are also addressed. This course is graded pass/fail.

VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of basic tissues and various organ systems of domestic animals.

VBS 1210 Physiology I
The course presents important system, cell and biochemical functions in common domestic species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I
The course uses problems from small animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems
This course provides an overview of major animal industries and the role played by veterinarians in each of the industries is discussed.

VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology
This course describes events occurring during an immune response at the cellular, molecular, and clinical levels, and the role of the response in the prevention and control of infectious disease. Clinical applications relevant to veterinary medicine are discussed.

VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II
This course presents comparative macroscopic anatomy of the horse and ruminant through dissection. 

VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of various organ systems, embryonic development, and congenital anomalies of domestic animals.

VBS 1220 Physiology II
This course continues presentation of important system, cell, and biomedical functions in common species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II
This course uses problems from large animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology
This course teaches basic principles and techniques used in veterinary epidemiology with a focus on development of quantitative reasoning skills.

VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focused on developing competency in basic animal restraint and handling and fundamental clinical skills.

VPM 1220 Parasitology
The course presents principles of the developmental cycles, pathogenesis of infections, immunological responses and epidemiology of animal parasites.

VPM 1520 General Pathology
This course presents the pathologic basis of disease processes in organs and tissues of animals at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels.

VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I
This course introduces basic principles of veterinary pharmacology. Drugs are presented using a systems-based approach and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I
This course presents fundamental principles of veterinary diagnostic imaging, including radiation physics and safety, with an introduction to image analysis and interpretation.

VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health
This course discusses the role of the veterinarian, either as a private practitioner or in a regulatory context, as it relates to risk management, zoonoses, food safety, and the interrelationship of animals and the environment.

VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine
This course presents a systematic approach to searching, critical reading, and appraisal of scientific literature to enable evidence-based clinical decisions in all areas of veterinary medicine.

VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of patient-assessment skills across species

VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology
This course presents important bacterial and fungal pathogens of animals and the diseases they cause. Principles of biosafety and biosecurity are introduced and opportunities are provided to apply these principles in the laboratory.

VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II
This course builds on Professional Foundations I to engage students in topics that help them understand and develop their professional identity. Core aspects include reflective practice, ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, and leadership. Students will develop communication skills required for effective medical interviews, difficult interactions, and challenging conversations with clients. This course is graded pass/fail.

VPM 2110 Virology
This course presents important viral pathogens of animals and offers a theoretical and practical basis for understanding the diseases they cause.

VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I
This course presents the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II
This course continues the presentation of drugs using a systems-based approach and provides opportunities to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology
This course introduces basic and clinical principles of toxicology. Toxins are presented using a systems-based approach, and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine
This course introduces common disease presentations in domestic species, reviews their pathophysiologic basis, and provides a framework for problem-based clinical reasoning.

VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of basic medical, surgical and anesthetic skills.

VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II
This course builds upon previous instruction in diagnostic imaging with a focus on image analysis and interpretation of diseases processes in common domestic species.

VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I
This course introduces clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including nutrition, behaviour, and dentistry.

VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery
This course introduces the fundamental principles of surgery and surgical management with broad species applications.

VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of anesthesia and anesthetic management with broad species applications. Pain management strategies are also emphasized.

VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of theriogenology and reproductive management including a review of reproductive physiology and control of the estrous cycle in common domestic species.

VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II
This course continues to present the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology
This course presents the principles of veterinary hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and cytology, and provides opportunities to develop diagnostic reasoning and technical skills relating to clinical pathology.

VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health
This course introduces students to all aspects of aquatic veterinary medicine, including aquaculture and pet fish, with a focus on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V
This two semester course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core anesthesia and surgery skills with a small animal focus.

VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine
This course describes the common medical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II
This course introduces students to clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including vaccinology, preventive parasitology, neonatology, gerontology, and elective surgery. 

VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery
This course describes the common surgical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, reproductive, and production limiting diseases of food producing animals relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, and reproductive diseases of horses relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV
This course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core procedural skills related to medicine, surgery, and reproduction in large and small animals.

VHM 3630 Professional Foundations III
This course introduces the fundamentals of business, structure of practice, and personal financial planning for veterinary professionals. Areas relevant to the new veterinary graduate are presented including workplace environment issues, facilities and configurations, foundations of customer service and compliance, human resource and leadership issues, marketing and promotion tactics, and the transition to practice ownership. Practice finances and personal income structures, including commission based salaries and self-employed status, will be discussed.

VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV
This course builds on the capacity for reflective practice and on further developing communication and interpersonal skills. Skills related to delivering and receiving feedback will be developed. Opportunities for practice and acquiring competence in client communication skills will be a focus.

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course introduces students to a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in small animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of small animal patients with specific disease processes.

VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 
This elective course introduces students to husbandry, clinical anatomy and physiology, fundamental principles of diagnosis and management of the most common diseases in exotic pets (ferrets, rodents and other exotic mammals).

VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine
This elective course provides an introduction to some of the principle methods in integrative medicine, including acupuncture, chiropractic, and other methods.

VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine
This elective course introduces students to the basic tenets of laboratory animal medicine including ethics of animal use in biomedical research, regulatory requirements (national and international), principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement when designing studies involving animals, animal models of human conditions, animal husbandry, biological safety, and animal welfare. The remainder of the course will be directed towards prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of common clinical disease conditions in traditional and nontraditional laboratory animal species and associated clinical techniques. Comparative aspects of the biology and medicine among species and their relevance to human and veterinary conditions will be addressed. This course will provide the appropriate background for laboratory animal medicine rotations in the clinical year.

VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course allows students to develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in large animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of large animal patients.

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals
This elective modular course emphasizes current research on production limiting diseases of cattle. Topics covered are dictated primarily by issues that are current and important to the cattle industry.

VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition
This elective modular course reviews bovine nutrition and record analysis as aids for improving dairy herd productivity. It focuses on management of the herd as a whole and on utilization of data management for decision making. Nutritional management and delivery of feeding programs to optimize production are also discussed.

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production
This elective modular course reviews bovine mastitis prevention and control and issues related to milk quality. Topics include herd investigation of mastitis and udder health, management of clinical and subclinical mastitis at the herd level, laboratory testing procedures for evaluation of milk quality, evaluation of milk quality records for trouble shooting of herd problems, and implications of milk quality for the dairy industry.

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lamesness, Welfare and Cow Comfort
This elective modular course discusses bovine lameness and welfare. It focuses on prevention of lameness and issues affecting cow comfort. Accurate diagnosis of the causes of lameness, and the economic consequences of lameness and other welfare issues, are emphasized.

VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants
This elective modular course emphasizes diseases and techniques unique to small ruminants including sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas. It includes discussion of topics such as nutrition, parasite control, and reproductive management.

VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Food Animals and the Ecosystem
This elective modular course covers three components: lobster health, finfish health and ecosystem health. The lobster component reviews health issues of lobsters with an emphasis on diseases of impounded lobsters and associated risk factors, and offers a laboratory on sampling procedures for diagnostic purposes. The finfish component addresses production and health related diseases in food fish with an emphasis on farmed salmon and coldwater marine fish. Topics include disease surveillance, disease risk factors, health management methods, and interactions between farmed and wild fish populations. The ecosystem health component introduces the principles of ecohealth using current examples from agriculture, aquaculture and wildlife.

VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology
This elective modular course emphasizes approaches essential to the successful reproductive management of beef and dairy herds. Topics include investigation of herd reproductive status and problems, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies, induction of abortion and parturition, breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, and common surgeries involving the bovine reproductive tract.

VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology
This elective modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides more advanced information on equine reproduction than is available in the core equine course. Broadly speaking, topics include stud management and reproductive disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective laboratory modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides the opportunity to practice basic and more advanced equine reproductive techniques in the mare and stallion.

VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides advanced exposure to bovine reproductive techniques including evaluation of herd records, diagnostic reproductive techniques and artificial insemination techniques in cows, and evaluation of bulls for breeding soundness.

VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth discussion of equine internal medicine with an emphasis on neonatology and the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. It also covers topics such as metabolic diseases, emerging infectious diseases, cardiology and dermatology.

VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to practice a variety of medical procedures in live animals and on cadaver specimens and models. It includes techniques related to evaluation of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous systems as well as techniques in dentistry, ophthalmology, intravenous catheterization, and catheterization of the urinary bladder.

VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth review of preventative medicine in the foal and adult horse. It includes discussion of neonatal foal care, nutrition, dentistry, parasite control, biosecurity practices, and vaccination for disease prevention.

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in food animals.

VHM 3470 Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular course provides detailed descriptions of the anatomy, physiology, anesthetic protocols, and surgical techniques for common surgical conditions encountered in equine practice.

VHM 3480
Techniques in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in horses.

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to work with horses with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Physical diagnosis, diagnostic anesthesia, and imaging studies are assessed in the context of patient history and client concerns.

Note: Additional year 3 electives are currently in development.

VCA 4000 Clinics in Anaesthesiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the anaesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary anaesthesiology.

VCA 4100 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine.

VCA 4300 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery  This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Surgery section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary surgery.

VCA 4340 Community Practice This course is a clinical rotation involving the community practice aspects of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Under faculty and staff supervision, senior veterinary students will be responsible for primary care of non-referral/non-emergency medicine and surgery cases.

VCA 4400 Clinics in Radiology  This course is a clinical rotation in the radiology section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students perform and interpret various examinations in diagnostic radiology and special procedures. Some experience in alternative imaging (ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy) may be gained depending on caseload.

VHM 4230 Large Animal Health Management This is a rotation involving the Farm Service, Theriogenology, and Equine Ambulatory sections of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students will explore contemporary issues relating to food animal and equine veterinary practice. There will be a focus on development of problem solving skills as they relate to herd health management, reproductive management, and equine preventative medicine.

VHM 4600 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery This course is a clinical rotation in the Large Animal Surgery Section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students provide patient care, participate in ward rounds, and learn the routine procedures of clinical case management and decision making.

VPM 4500 Diagnostic Services
This course is a rotation in the laboratories of Diagnostic Services. Students gain practical experience in clinical diagnostics with respect to the application of techniques and the interpretation of results in the areas of pathology, clinical pathology, virology, bacteriology and parasitology.

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
In this rotation students acquire information about laboratory animal medicine as a career path and discuss the challenges and opportunities facing exotic animal and laboratory animal veterinarians. Students practice animal handling, physical examination, and routine procedures such as blood collection and administration of injections, and become familiar with common diseases of exotic pets and laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines governing animal research and the role of the veterinarian in ensuring humane methods of experimentation are discussed, as are a variety of issues pertaining to animal facilities management.

VCA 4020 Clinics in Anesthesiology II
In this rotation through the anesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia.

VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Medicine.

VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Surgery Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Surgery.

VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology
This is a clinical rotation in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary dermatologist. Students participate in the diagnosis and therapy of diseases involving the skin of companion animals.

VCA 4750 Clinics in Client Communication
This one-week clinical rotation will introduce students to communication theory, the impact of feelings, emotions, and
values on communication, and to techniques that will aid in building relationships and eliciting information from clients. Through lectures, role plays, and videotaped real client interactions, students will learn about and practice skills to more effectively communicate with clients.

VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the cardiology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary cardiology.

VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology
This is a clinical rotation in the ophthalmology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary ophthalmologist. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary ophthalmology.

VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
This course is a clinical rotation taught by veterinarians affiliated with Mark Morris Associates. Case-based discussions emphasize the role of dietary management of disease states as primary or adjunctive therapy. Currently hospitalized patients may be incorporated in case discussions.

VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on population-based problems of clinical relevance, and to develop problem solving, data management and information processing skills necessary to address veterinary medicine related problems. The projects utilize, whenever possible, existing data such as hospital records, APHIN and/or ADLIC health and production databases, research data, and other data sources. Students may elect to analyse data that they have obtained from a research or clinical practice experience. With faculty supervision, students assemble the necessary data, carry out appropriate analyses, interpret results and prepare a report of their findings. This is an abbreviated form of VHM 402, with reduced expectations of students.

VHM 4130 Fish Health
Students will gain experience in the application of veterinary skills to finfish and shellfish species found in aquaculture and public fisheries. Practical experience will include health assessments and disease diagnoses, application of treatment techniques, assessment of biosecurity practices, and development of disease prevention strategies. The course will include farm visits and laboratory testing.

VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service - Dairy
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of dairy cattle. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in both the practice of clinical veterinary medicine and in planning and delivering programs to enhance production in dairy cows.

VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
This course demonstrates the complexity of ecosystem decision making and the role of the veterinarian in the assessment, solution and possible management of ecosystem health issues. The field portion of the course involves an in-depth examination of one or several ecosystems and provides an opportunity to apply principles and methods discussed in lectures and reviewed in the literature.

VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farms, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4310.

VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service - Feedlot Management
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in cattle. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the management of health and disease on feedlot operations, including processing of calves in the fall. Students are based at Feedlot Health Management Services, Okotoks, Alberta, for the majority of this rotation, to gain experience on feedlots in Western Canada.

VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Nutrition
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for enhancing nutritional management of dairy cattle.

VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Mastitis
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle, including: evaluation of milk quality records available for trouble-shooting herd problems; evaluation of milking systems, milking time, and parlour labour efficiency; development of a milk culture service; and development of mastitis pathogen treatment and prevention strategies.

VHM 4480 Clinics in Farm Service – Ruminant Reproduction
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for ruminant reproduction, including: pregnancy diagnosis and fetal sexing using ultrasound technology, the analysis of herd level reproductive records, and other advanced techniques.

VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for general equine practice. Students participate under veterinary supervision in the provision of preventive care as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for clinical equine practice and expand their ability to diagnose and treat equine conditions as encountered in VHM 4530.

VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the farm service section of the veterinary teaching hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farm, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4550.

VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on sports medicine. Students participate under veterinary supervision in investigation of poor performance in the equine athlete as well as in diagnosis and treatment of non-performance related conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for equine practice and sports medicine and expand their ability to investigate and treat poor performance in the equine athlete as encountered in VHM 4570.

VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
This course is a clinical rotation in the equine ambulatory service of the veterinary teaching hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on reproductive services. Students participate under veterinary supervision in herd visits and breeding farm management as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery II
In this a clinical rotation, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching
Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.

VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Department of Health Management. The rotation emphasizes the procedures and techniques for providing health monitoring services for minimal disease swine farms. The student will participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, the evaluation of the health status of the farms, and consultation regarding production and health management, and disease prevention.

VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
This course provides 3 weeks of practical experience, in the context of an international development project, for veterinary students from AVC on management of small holder dairy farming in Africa, and on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of common animal diseases and dairy management problems encountered in East Africa.

VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
This course prepares students to assume the role of an Accredited Veterinarian. An Accredited Veterinarian is a veterinarian who is authorized under the Health of Animals Act to perform certain duties and functions in support of the National Animal Health Program (e.g. certifying livestock for export, Coggins testing horses). Topics covered include an orientation to the national food inspection system and the federal laboratory system. This course is a prerequisite for Accreditation with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and hence will be of interest to students considering work in the food animal, equine or regulatory sector.

VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques 
In this course students learn the fundamentals of veterinary chiropractic medicine and apply its principles to the management of patients with problems of gait, posture, and movement.  Lectures and laboratories in the biomechanics and neurophysiology of manipulative therapeutics are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by using chiropractic medicine.

VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture Techniques 
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary acupuncture, and apply its principles to the management of patients with special problems. Lectures and laboratories in the science of acupuncture are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the teaching hospital for treatment. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by acupuncture.

VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
In this course, students learn the theory and practice of disease prevention in horses, including vaccination and parasite control programs. Students practice, with faculty supervision, dental care on horses at Island facilities and in the AVC teaching barn. In-depth discussions and reviews of pertinent and timely information take place.

VHM 4810 Ruminant Medicine and Surgery - St. Hyacinthe
Students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions in ruminant animals, primarily dairy cattle, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montréal in Saint-Hyacinthe, Qúebec. The rotation emphasizes individual animal medicine and surgery. Students are expected to provide patient care, actively participate in the diagnostic, treatment, and management decisions concerning their patients, and participate in rounds and discussion topics. Duties include after hour emergency and treatment crew. This course is offered as a 3 week rotation. Instruction will be given in English. Partial student support for expenses is sought through industry sponsors.

VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
In this course, students participate in seminars, tutorials and laboratory exercises on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and control of major infectious diseases of animals in the tropics and/or countries foreign to North America. Slides and video tapes are used and students are expected to acquire up-to-date information on recent or current epidemics and on emerging diseases. Regulatory measures to prevent introduction of such diseases and to control possible outbreaks in non-endemic areas are emphasized.

VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
In this rotation, small groups of students interact directly with pathologists on post-mortem duty. Students gain practical experience in performing necropsies, evaluating histologic slides and establishing a final diagnosis.
Emphasis is placed on gross morphologic diagnosis. This rotation focuses primarily on anatomic pathology.  It is intended for those students who are interested in obtaining a solid experience in performing postmortem examinations. Taking VPM 450, in addition to this rotation, would also be valuable for those individuals truly interested in a career in pathology.
 

Calendar Courses

Course Descriptions

VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I
This course provides a foundation in macroscopic (gross) anatomy using the dog as the primary dissection model.

VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare
This course introduces fundamental principles of animal behaviour and presents an overview of animal welfare concepts relevant to the practice of veterinary medicine.

VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research
This course presents fundamental principles of research methodology for biomedical and clinical applications in veterinary medicine including hypothesis testing and scientific approach, experimental design, dissemination of scientific results, intellectual property and research ethics.

VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I
This course introduces essential concepts that form the foundation of a veterinarian’s professional life including development of a professional identity, the roles veterinarians play in society, and development of essential skills. These skills include reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being. Current trends in the veterinary profession are also addressed. This course is graded pass/fail.

VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of basic tissues and various organ systems of domestic animals.

VBS 1210 Physiology I
The course presents important system, cell and biochemical functions in common domestic species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I
The course uses problems from small animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems
This course provides an overview of major animal industries and the role played by veterinarians in each of the industries is discussed.

VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology
This course describes events occurring during an immune response at the cellular, molecular, and clinical levels, and the role of the response in the prevention and control of infectious disease. Clinical applications relevant to veterinary medicine are discussed.

VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II
This course presents comparative macroscopic anatomy of the horse and ruminant through dissection. 

VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of various organ systems, embryonic development, and congenital anomalies of domestic animals.

VBS 1220 Physiology II
This course continues presentation of important system, cell, and biomedical functions in common species using a systems-based approach.

VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II
This course uses problems from large animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.

VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology
This course teaches basic principles and techniques used in veterinary epidemiology with a focus on development of quantitative reasoning skills.

VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focused on developing competency in basic animal restraint and handling and fundamental clinical skills.

VPM 1220 Parasitology
The course presents principles of the developmental cycles, pathogenesis of infections, immunological responses and epidemiology of animal parasites.

VPM 1520 General Pathology
This course presents the pathologic basis of disease processes in organs and tissues of animals at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels.

VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I
This course introduces basic principles of veterinary pharmacology. Drugs are presented using a systems-based approach and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I
This course presents fundamental principles of veterinary diagnostic imaging, including radiation physics and safety, with an introduction to image analysis and interpretation.

VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health
This course discusses the role of the veterinarian, either as a private practitioner or in a regulatory context, as it relates to risk management, zoonoses, food safety, and the interrelationship of animals and the environment.

VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine
This course presents a systematic approach to searching, critical reading, and appraisal of scientific literature to enable evidence-based clinical decisions in all areas of veterinary medicine.

VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of patient-assessment skills across species

VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology
This course presents important bacterial and fungal pathogens of animals and the diseases they cause. Principles of biosafety and biosecurity are introduced and opportunities are provided to apply these principles in the laboratory.

VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II
This course builds on Professional Foundations I to engage students in topics that help them understand and develop their professional identity. Core aspects include reflective practice, ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, and leadership. Students will develop communication skills required for effective medical interviews, difficult interactions, and challenging conversations with clients. This course is graded pass/fail.

VPM 2110 Virology
This course presents important viral pathogens of animals and offers a theoretical and practical basis for understanding the diseases they cause.

VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I
This course presents the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II
This course continues the presentation of drugs using a systems-based approach and provides opportunities to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology
This course introduces basic and clinical principles of toxicology. Toxins are presented using a systems-based approach, and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.

VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine
This course introduces common disease presentations in domestic species, reviews their pathophysiologic basis, and provides a framework for problem-based clinical reasoning.

VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of basic medical, surgical and anesthetic skills.

VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II
This course builds upon previous instruction in diagnostic imaging with a focus on image analysis and interpretation of diseases processes in common domestic species.

VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I
This course introduces clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including nutrition, behaviour, and dentistry.

VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery
This course introduces the fundamental principles of surgery and surgical management with broad species applications.

VCA 2410 Principles of Anesthesiology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of anesthesia and anesthetic management with broad species applications. Pain management strategies are also emphasized.

VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology
This course introduces the fundamental principles of theriogenology and reproductive management including a review of reproductive physiology and control of the estrous cycle in common domestic species.

VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II
This course continues to present the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.

VPM 2420 Clinical Pathology
This course presents the principles of veterinary hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and cytology, and provides opportunities to develop diagnostic reasoning and technical skills relating to clinical pathology.

VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health
This course introduces students to all aspects of aquatic veterinary medicine, including aquaculture and pet fish, with a focus on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V
This two semester course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core anesthesia and surgery skills with a small animal focus.

VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine
This course describes the common medical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II
This course introduces students to clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including vaccinology, preventive parasitology, neonatology, gerontology, and elective surgery. 

VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery
This course describes the common surgical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, reproductive, and production limiting diseases of food producing animals relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease
This course presents the common medical, surgical, and reproductive diseases of horses relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.

VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV
This course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core procedural skills related to medicine, surgery, and reproduction in large and small animals.

VHM 3630 Professional Foundations III
This course introduces the fundamentals of business, structure of practice, and personal financial planning for veterinary professionals. Areas relevant to the new veterinary graduate are presented including workplace environment issues, facilities and configurations, foundations of customer service and compliance, human resource and leadership issues, marketing and promotion tactics, and the transition to practice ownership. Practice finances and personal income structures, including commission based salaries and self-employed status, will be discussed.

VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV
This course builds on the capacity for reflective practice and on further developing communication and interpersonal skills. Skills related to delivering and receiving feedback will be developed. Opportunities for practice and acquiring competence in client communication skills will be a focus.

VCA 3240 Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course introduces students to a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in small animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of small animal patients with specific disease processes.

VCA 3510 Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 
This elective course introduces students to husbandry, clinical anatomy and physiology, fundamental principles of diagnosis and management of the most common diseases in exotic pets (ferrets, rodents and other exotic mammals).

VHM 3520 Principles of Integrative Medicine
This elective course provides an introduction to some of the principle methods in integrative medicine, including acupuncture, chiropractic, and other methods.

VBS 3110 Comparative Medicine
This elective course introduces students to the basic tenets of laboratory animal medicine including ethics of animal use in biomedical research, regulatory requirements (national and international), principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement when designing studies involving animals, animal models of human conditions, animal husbandry, biological safety, and animal welfare. The remainder of the course will be directed towards prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of common clinical disease conditions in traditional and nontraditional laboratory animal species and associated clinical techniques. Comparative aspects of the biology and medicine among species and their relevance to human and veterinary conditions will be addressed. This course will provide the appropriate background for laboratory animal medicine rotations in the clinical year.

VCA 3230 Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology
This elective course allows students to develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in large animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of large animal patients.

VHM 3250 Production and Infectious Diseases of Food Animals
This elective modular course emphasizes current research on production limiting diseases of cattle. Topics covered are dictated primarily by issues that are current and important to the cattle industry.

VHM 3260 Bovine Herd Management and Nutrition
This elective modular course reviews bovine nutrition and record analysis as aids for improving dairy herd productivity. It focuses on management of the herd as a whole and on utilization of data management for decision making. Nutritional management and delivery of feeding programs to optimize production are also discussed.

VHM 3270 Advanced Bovine Mastitis and Quality Milk Production
This elective modular course reviews bovine mastitis prevention and control and issues related to milk quality. Topics include herd investigation of mastitis and udder health, management of clinical and subclinical mastitis at the herd level, laboratory testing procedures for evaluation of milk quality, evaluation of milk quality records for trouble shooting of herd problems, and implications of milk quality for the dairy industry.

VHM 3280 Current Issues in Bovine Lamesness, Welfare and Cow Comfort
This elective modular course discusses bovine lameness and welfare. It focuses on prevention of lameness and issues affecting cow comfort. Accurate diagnosis of the causes of lameness, and the economic consequences of lameness and other welfare issues, are emphasized.

VHM 3330 Topics in Small Ruminants
This elective modular course emphasizes diseases and techniques unique to small ruminants including sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas. It includes discussion of topics such as nutrition, parasite control, and reproductive management.

VHM 3340 Health of Aquatic Food Animals and the Ecosystem
This elective modular course covers three components: lobster health, finfish health and ecosystem health. The lobster component reviews health issues of lobsters with an emphasis on diseases of impounded lobsters and associated risk factors, and offers a laboratory on sampling procedures for diagnostic purposes. The finfish component addresses production and health related diseases in food fish with an emphasis on farmed salmon and coldwater marine fish. Topics include disease surveillance, disease risk factors, health management methods, and interactions between farmed and wild fish populations. The ecosystem health component introduces the principles of ecohealth using current examples from agriculture, aquaculture and wildlife.

VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine Theriogenology
This elective modular course emphasizes approaches essential to the successful reproductive management of beef and dairy herds. Topics include investigation of herd reproductive status and problems, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies, induction of abortion and parturition, breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, and common surgeries involving the bovine reproductive tract.

VHM 3360 Topics in Advanced Equine Theriogenology
This elective modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides more advanced information on equine reproduction than is available in the core equine course. Broadly speaking, topics include stud management and reproductive disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

VHM 3370 Advanced Equine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective laboratory modular course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides the opportunity to practice basic and more advanced equine reproductive techniques in the mare and stallion.

VHM 3380 Advanced Bovine Theriogenology Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides advanced exposure to bovine reproductive techniques including evaluation of herd records, diagnostic reproductive techniques and artificial insemination techniques in cows, and evaluation of bulls for breeding soundness.

VHM 3390 Topics in Advanced Equine Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth discussion of equine internal medicine with an emphasis on neonatology and the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. It also covers topics such as metabolic diseases, emerging infectious diseases, cardiology and dermatology.

VHM 3430 Advanced Equine Medicine Techniques
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to practice a variety of medical procedures in live animals and on cadaver specimens and models. It includes techniques related to evaluation of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous systems as well as techniques in dentistry, ophthalmology, intravenous catheterization, and catheterization of the urinary bladder.

VHM 3440 Equine Preventative Medicine
This elective modular course provides an in depth review of preventative medicine in the foal and adult horse. It includes discussion of neonatal foal care, nutrition, dentistry, parasite control, biosecurity practices, and vaccination for disease prevention.

VHM 3460 Techniques in Food Animal Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in food animals.

VHM 3470 Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular course provides detailed descriptions of the anatomy, physiology, anesthetic protocols, and surgical techniques for common surgical conditions encountered in equine practice.

VHM 3480
Techniques in Equine Anesthesia and Surgery
This elective modular laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in horses.

VHM 3510 Techniques in the Evaluation of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases
This elective modular laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to work with horses with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Physical diagnosis, diagnostic anesthesia, and imaging studies are assessed in the context of patient history and client concerns.

Note: Additional year 3 electives are currently in development.

VCA 4000 Clinics in Anaesthesiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the anaesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary anaesthesiology.

VCA 4100 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine.

VCA 4300 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery  This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Surgery section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary surgery.

VCA 4340 Community Practice This course is a clinical rotation involving the community practice aspects of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Under faculty and staff supervision, senior veterinary students will be responsible for primary care of non-referral/non-emergency medicine and surgery cases.

VCA 4400 Clinics in Radiology  This course is a clinical rotation in the radiology section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students perform and interpret various examinations in diagnostic radiology and special procedures. Some experience in alternative imaging (ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy) may be gained depending on caseload.

VHM 4230 Large Animal Health Management This is a rotation involving the Farm Service, Theriogenology, and Equine Ambulatory sections of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students will explore contemporary issues relating to food animal and equine veterinary practice. There will be a focus on development of problem solving skills as they relate to herd health management, reproductive management, and equine preventative medicine.

VHM 4600 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery This course is a clinical rotation in the Large Animal Surgery Section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students provide patient care, participate in ward rounds, and learn the routine procedures of clinical case management and decision making.

VPM 4500 Diagnostic Services
This course is a rotation in the laboratories of Diagnostic Services. Students gain practical experience in clinical diagnostics with respect to the application of techniques and the interpretation of results in the areas of pathology, clinical pathology, virology, bacteriology and parasitology.

VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
In this rotation students acquire information about laboratory animal medicine as a career path and discuss the challenges and opportunities facing exotic animal and laboratory animal veterinarians. Students practice animal handling, physical examination, and routine procedures such as blood collection and administration of injections, and become familiar with common diseases of exotic pets and laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines governing animal research and the role of the veterinarian in ensuring humane methods of experimentation are discussed, as are a variety of issues pertaining to animal facilities management.

VCA 4020 Clinics in Anesthesiology II
In this rotation through the anesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia.

VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Medicine.

VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Surgery Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Surgery.

VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology
This is a clinical rotation in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary dermatologist. Students participate in the diagnosis and therapy of diseases involving the skin of companion animals.

VCA 4750 Clinics in Client Communication
This one-week clinical rotation will introduce students to communication theory, the impact of feelings, emotions, and
values on communication, and to techniques that will aid in building relationships and eliciting information from clients. Through lectures, role plays, and videotaped real client interactions, students will learn about and practice skills to more effectively communicate with clients.

VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology
This course is a clinical rotation in the cardiology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary cardiology.

VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology
This is a clinical rotation in the ophthalmology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital led by a visiting veterinary ophthalmologist. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary ophthalmology.

VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
This course is a clinical rotation taught by veterinarians affiliated with Mark Morris Associates. Case-based discussions emphasize the role of dietary management of disease states as primary or adjunctive therapy. Currently hospitalized patients may be incorporated in case discussions.

VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on population-based problems of clinical relevance, and to develop problem solving, data management and information processing skills necessary to address veterinary medicine related problems. The projects utilize, whenever possible, existing data such as hospital records, APHIN and/or ADLIC health and production databases, research data, and other data sources. Students may elect to analyse data that they have obtained from a research or clinical practice experience. With faculty supervision, students assemble the necessary data, carry out appropriate analyses, interpret results and prepare a report of their findings. This is an abbreviated form of VHM 402, with reduced expectations of students.

VHM 4130 Fish Health
Students will gain experience in the application of veterinary skills to finfish and shellfish species found in aquaculture and public fisheries. Practical experience will include health assessments and disease diagnoses, application of treatment techniques, assessment of biosecurity practices, and development of disease prevention strategies. The course will include farm visits and laboratory testing.

VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service - Dairy
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of dairy cattle. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in both the practice of clinical veterinary medicine and in planning and delivering programs to enhance production in dairy cows.

VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
This course demonstrates the complexity of ecosystem decision making and the role of the veterinarian in the assessment, solution and possible management of ecosystem health issues. The field portion of the course involves an in-depth examination of one or several ecosystems and provides an opportunity to apply principles and methods discussed in lectures and reviewed in the literature.

VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant and Swine II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farms, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4310.

VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service - Feedlot Management
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in cattle. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the management of health and disease on feedlot operations, including processing of calves in the fall. Students are based at Feedlot Health Management Services, Okotoks, Alberta, for the majority of this rotation, to gain experience on feedlots in Western Canada.

VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Nutrition
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for enhancing nutritional management of dairy cattle.

VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service - Ruminant Mastitis
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle, including: evaluation of milk quality records available for trouble-shooting herd problems; evaluation of milking systems, milking time, and parlour labour efficiency; development of a milk culture service; and development of mastitis pathogen treatment and prevention strategies.

VHM 4480 Clinics in Farm Service – Ruminant Reproduction
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for ruminant reproduction, including: pregnancy diagnosis and fetal sexing using ultrasound technology, the analysis of herd level reproductive records, and other advanced techniques.

VHM 4530 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for general equine practice. Students participate under veterinary supervision in the provision of preventive care as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4540 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory Service II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for clinical equine practice and expand their ability to diagnose and treat equine conditions as encountered in VHM 4530.

VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
This course is a clinical rotation in the farm service section of the veterinary teaching hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.

VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farm, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4550.

VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on sports medicine. Students participate under veterinary supervision in investigation of poor performance in the equine athlete as well as in diagnosis and treatment of non-performance related conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for equine practice and sports medicine and expand their ability to investigate and treat poor performance in the equine athlete as encountered in VHM 4570.

VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
This course is a clinical rotation in the equine ambulatory service of the veterinary teaching hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on reproductive services. Students participate under veterinary supervision in herd visits and breeding farm management as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.

VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery II
In this a clinical rotation, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching
Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.

VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Department of Health Management. The rotation emphasizes the procedures and techniques for providing health monitoring services for minimal disease swine farms. The student will participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, the evaluation of the health status of the farms, and consultation regarding production and health management, and disease prevention.

VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
This course provides 3 weeks of practical experience, in the context of an international development project, for veterinary students from AVC on management of small holder dairy farming in Africa, and on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of common animal diseases and dairy management problems encountered in East Africa.

VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
This course prepares students to assume the role of an Accredited Veterinarian. An Accredited Veterinarian is a veterinarian who is authorized under the Health of Animals Act to perform certain duties and functions in support of the National Animal Health Program (e.g. certifying livestock for export, Coggins testing horses). Topics covered include an orientation to the national food inspection system and the federal laboratory system. This course is a prerequisite for Accreditation with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and hence will be of interest to students considering work in the food animal, equine or regulatory sector.

VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques 
In this course students learn the fundamentals of veterinary chiropractic medicine and apply its principles to the management of patients with problems of gait, posture, and movement.  Lectures and laboratories in the biomechanics and neurophysiology of manipulative therapeutics are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by using chiropractic medicine.

VHM 4860 Veterinary Acupuncture Techniques 
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary acupuncture, and apply its principles to the management of patients with special problems. Lectures and laboratories in the science of acupuncture are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the teaching hospital for treatment. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by acupuncture.

VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
In this course, students learn the theory and practice of disease prevention in horses, including vaccination and parasite control programs. Students practice, with faculty supervision, dental care on horses at Island facilities and in the AVC teaching barn. In-depth discussions and reviews of pertinent and timely information take place.

VHM 4810 Ruminant Medicine and Surgery - St. Hyacinthe
Students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions in ruminant animals, primarily dairy cattle, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montréal in Saint-Hyacinthe, Qúebec. The rotation emphasizes individual animal medicine and surgery. Students are expected to provide patient care, actively participate in the diagnostic, treatment, and management decisions concerning their patients, and participate in rounds and discussion topics. Duties include after hour emergency and treatment crew. This course is offered as a 3 week rotation. Instruction will be given in English. Partial student support for expenses is sought through industry sponsors.

VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
In this course, students participate in seminars, tutorials and laboratory exercises on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and control of major infectious diseases of animals in the tropics and/or countries foreign to North America. Slides and video tapes are used and students are expected to acquire up-to-date information on recent or current epidemics and on emerging diseases. Regulatory measures to prevent introduction of such diseases and to control possible outbreaks in non-endemic areas are emphasized.

VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
In this rotation, small groups of students interact directly with pathologists on post-mortem duty. Students gain practical experience in performing necropsies, evaluating histologic slides and establishing a final diagnosis.
Emphasis is placed on gross morphologic diagnosis. This rotation focuses primarily on anatomic pathology.  It is intended for those students who are interested in obtaining a solid experience in performing postmortem examinations. Taking VPM 450, in addition to this rotation, would also be valuable for those individuals truly interested in a career in pathology.
 

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