"To study biology is to study life."

Biology

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First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.

The Biology Department at UPEI has a strong tradition of helping people realize their potential through deep consideration of the biological world. A scientific understanding of the plants and animals is, in many ways, its own reward. But it is also a pathway to a large number of exciting and fulfilling career opportunities. A biology program is a common route toward the health professions (human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, etc.), for which we offer strong pre-professional programs. It can also lead to careers in environmental analysis, biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics, and many other things. Biology graduates also often establish other sorts of careers (lawyer, business professional) for which the knowledge of biology can be a strong personal and professional asset.

The strength of our educational programs derive from the strength of our scholarly activity and research. Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Atlantic Innovation Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Prince Edward Island Health Research Institute, among others. Our faculty have research programs in neurobiology, arctic insect ecology, cancer cell biology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, heart and stroke physiology, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Dr. Marva Sweeney-Nixon
UPEI Department of Biology
Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.

The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 440.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 490: Advanced Research and Thesis.

Course Requirements of the Honours Program

Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program with the addition of Biology 490 and two other Biology electives (taken from any stream). These would normally be completed in the student’s final year.

Fourth Year: Honours Biology

  • *Two Biology electives at 4000 level (6 semester hours); (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
  • *Two additional Biology electives at the 2000 level or above (6 semester hours)
  • Biology 4900 (Advanced Research and Thesis) (12 semester hours)
  • Electives (6 semester hours)

* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability. Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student's third year.

PERFORMANCE

To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree.  Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

 

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN BIOLOGY

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Science according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. Students in the 'pre-vet' program should follow the Life Sciences specialization, and may select courses of interest in animal biology or other areas.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream. The Life Sciences specialization may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate studies related to veterinary medicine ('pre-vet'), human health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization may be of interest to students interested in careers or graduate studies related to biodiversity and conservation, or wildlife biology in the modern context of climate change and human interactions. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Modern Biology.

Refer to the Specializations tab for course structures of all biology major specializations.

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1310-1320 6
Two of Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060 6
Two of Biology 2210, 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3260 or 3520 or 3820 3
Biology 3310 3
at least six additional Biology electives that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed under the Specializations tab.

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION, including PRE-VET

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1020 or 1030 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2040 and 2060 6
Biology 2210 and either 2230 or 2240 6
Foods and Nutrition 2110 or Physics 2430 3
Biology 3260 3
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3520 or Physics 3520 3

at least five additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and be from Life Sciences
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Life Sciences Specialization list
- at least one must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists

15

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as below. 

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Core Courses Hours Credit
Environmental Studies 1010 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060  9
Biology 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3820 3
at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and from the Environmental Biology list
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
- at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed below. 

REQUIRED COURSES FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS

  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030 (3 credit hours)
  • Chemistry:
    • Chemistry 1110 and 1120 (6 credit hours)
    • Chemistry 2410-2420 or Chemistry 2430 (3 or 6 credit hours - credit will not be given for both Chemistry 2430 and Chemistry 2410 or 2420)
    • Chemistry 3530 or Biology 2250 (3 credit hours - required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 3530 or 2020 is required for Environmental Biology)
  • Physics:
    • Physics 1210 (or 1110) and Physics 1220 (or 1120) (6 credit hours)
  • Mathematics and Statistics:
    • Math 1120 or Math 1910 (3 or 4 credit hours)
    • Stat 1210 (formerly 2210) (3 credit hours)
      • Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 1910-1920 is required: therefore Mathematics 1910-1920 may be taken in place of Mathematics 1120 but the statistics requirement of Statistics 1210 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 1120 and Mathematics 1910.
  • Other electives: The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major (a total of 120 semester hours) will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses.


SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

First Year

  • Introductory Biology (BIO 1310-1320)
  • Introductory Chemistry (CHEM 1110-1120)
  • Calculus (MATH 1120 or 1910)
  • Statistics (STAT 1210)
  • Physics for the Life Sciences (PHYS 1210 and 1220)
  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030
  • Introductory Environmental Studies (ENV 1010) or a human or animal health course (BIO 1020 or 1030) or Electives

Second Year

  • Biodiversity courses (BIO 2020, 2040, 2060)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology and/or Ecology and/or Genetics (BIO 2210, 2220, 2230, 2240)
  • Organic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry or Biochemistry (CHEM 2410-2420 or 2430; CHEM 2020; CHEM 3530 or BIO 2250)
  • Nutrition 2210 or Physics 2430. Students interested in a Medical and biological Physics minor should take Physics 2220, Modern Physics for Life Sciences [can also be taken in third year]
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Third Year

  • Core physiology or evolution (BIO 3260 or 3820)
  • Research Methods and Communications (BIO 3310)
  • Molecular Biology Research Techniques (BIO 3520) or Biomedical Imaging (PHYS 3520) [can also be taken in fourth year]
  • *Biology electives (2000 level or above) as indicated above for your specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Fourth Year

  • Two Biology electives at 4000 level from the required specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the "General Biology" section may be used as "alternate electives" in any specialization
  • Certain Biology 4410 (Directed studies) or 4420 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one specialization or the other with prior permission of the Chair.
  • Courses that are required components for one specialization or the other (e.g. Biology 2210 and 3260 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 2220 and 3820 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as "alternate" electives for the other specialization. Bio 2020, 2040 and 2060 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Elective courses in the Life Sciences Specialization

*Biology 2260 - Human Anatomy and Histology
Physics 2430 - Physics of the Human Body
*Biology 3110 - Plants and People
Biology 3750 - Medical Microbiology
Biology 3220 - Bioinformatics
*Biology 3230 - Genetics II
*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3240 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 4010 - Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
*Biology 4020 - Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
*Biology 4030 - Developmental Biology
*Biology 4040 - Endocrinology
*Biology 4050 - Medical Biology
Biology 4350 - Biology of Sex
Biology 4710 - Molecular Biotechnology
*Biology 4720 - Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
Biology 4750 - Basic and Clinical Immunology
Paramedicine 4010 - Social Determinants of Health
Foods and Nutrition 4520 - Aging: Biological & Lifestyle Perspectives

Refer to the current admission requirements to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program.

Elective courses in the Environmental Biology Specialization 

*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3140 - Plant Community Ecology
*Biology 3270 - Field Coastal Ecology
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3510 - Ornithology
*Biology 3610 - Biology of Fishes
*Biology 3660 - Plant-Animal Interactions
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 3910 - Marine Biology
*Biology 4110 - Wildlife Biology
*Biology 4130 - Conservation Genetics
*Biology 4520 - Biogeography and Macroecology
*Biology 4540 - Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
*Biology 4620 - Watershed Ecology
*Biology 4650 - Marine Community Ecology
*Biology 4850 - Environmental Toxicology

Elective courses in the General Biology Program (can be used as "alternate" stream courses)

*Biology 2020 - Botany
*Biology 2040 - Zoology
*Biology 2060 - Microbiology
Biology 3120 - History of Biology
*Biology 3520 - Molecular Biology Research Techniques
*Biology 4210 - Design and Analysis of Biological Studies

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.

Minor in Biology

To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses. The requirements for a minor in Biology are:

Biology 1310-1320 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 2000 level or above (15 semester hours)

Total Semester Hours = 21

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
  • Environmental Activist
  • Veterinary Medicine
The department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
  • J. Charles Cheverie, Professor Emeritus
  • Donna J. Giberson, Professor Emeritus
  • Louis A. Hanic, Professor Emeritus
  • Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Professor, Chair
  • Robert Hurta, Professor
  • Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
  • Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
  • Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
  • James R. Kemp, Associate Professor
  • Pedro Quijon, Associate Professor
  • Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
  • Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor
  • H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
  • Joel Ross, Assistant Professor
  • Karen Samis, Assistant Professor
  • Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
  • Adam Fenech, Adjunct Professor
  • Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
  • Natacha Hogan, Adjunct Professor
  • Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
  • David McCorquodale, Adjunct Professor
  • Andre-St-Hillaire, Adjunct Professor
Overview

The Biology Department at UPEI has a strong tradition of helping people realize their potential through deep consideration of the biological world. A scientific understanding of the plants and animals is, in many ways, its own reward. But it is also a pathway to a large number of exciting and fulfilling career opportunities. A biology program is a common route toward the health professions (human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, etc.), for which we offer strong pre-professional programs. It can also lead to careers in environmental analysis, biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics, and many other things. Biology graduates also often establish other sorts of careers (lawyer, business professional) for which the knowledge of biology can be a strong personal and professional asset.

The strength of our educational programs derive from the strength of our scholarly activity and research. Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Atlantic Innovation Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Prince Edward Island Health Research Institute, among others. Our faculty have research programs in neurobiology, arctic insect ecology, cancer cell biology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, heart and stroke physiology, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

UPEI Department of Biology
Dr. Marva Sweeney-Nixon
Honours

The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 440.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 490: Advanced Research and Thesis.

Course Requirements of the Honours Program

Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program with the addition of Biology 490 and two other Biology electives (taken from any stream). These would normally be completed in the student’s final year.

Fourth Year: Honours Biology

  • *Two Biology electives at 4000 level (6 semester hours); (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
  • *Two additional Biology electives at the 2000 level or above (6 semester hours)
  • Biology 4900 (Advanced Research and Thesis) (12 semester hours)
  • Electives (6 semester hours)

* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability. Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student's third year.

PERFORMANCE

To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree.  Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

 

Major

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN BIOLOGY

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Science according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. Students in the 'pre-vet' program should follow the Life Sciences specialization, and may select courses of interest in animal biology or other areas.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream. The Life Sciences specialization may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate studies related to veterinary medicine ('pre-vet'), human health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization may be of interest to students interested in careers or graduate studies related to biodiversity and conservation, or wildlife biology in the modern context of climate change and human interactions. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Modern Biology.

Refer to the Specializations tab for course structures of all biology major specializations.

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1310-1320 6
Two of Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060 6
Two of Biology 2210, 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3260 or 3520 or 3820 3
Biology 3310 3
at least six additional Biology electives that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed under the Specializations tab.

Specializations

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION, including PRE-VET

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1020 or 1030 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2040 and 2060 6
Biology 2210 and either 2230 or 2240 6
Foods and Nutrition 2110 or Physics 2430 3
Biology 3260 3
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3520 or Physics 3520 3

at least five additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and be from Life Sciences
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Life Sciences Specialization list
- at least one must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists

15

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as below. 

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Core Courses Hours Credit
Environmental Studies 1010 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060  9
Biology 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3820 3
at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and from the Environmental Biology list
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
- at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed below. 

REQUIRED COURSES FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS

  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030 (3 credit hours)
  • Chemistry:
    • Chemistry 1110 and 1120 (6 credit hours)
    • Chemistry 2410-2420 or Chemistry 2430 (3 or 6 credit hours - credit will not be given for both Chemistry 2430 and Chemistry 2410 or 2420)
    • Chemistry 3530 or Biology 2250 (3 credit hours - required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 3530 or 2020 is required for Environmental Biology)
  • Physics:
    • Physics 1210 (or 1110) and Physics 1220 (or 1120) (6 credit hours)
  • Mathematics and Statistics:
    • Math 1120 or Math 1910 (3 or 4 credit hours)
    • Stat 1210 (formerly 2210) (3 credit hours)
      • Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 1910-1920 is required: therefore Mathematics 1910-1920 may be taken in place of Mathematics 1120 but the statistics requirement of Statistics 1210 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 1120 and Mathematics 1910.
  • Other electives: The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major (a total of 120 semester hours) will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses.


SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

First Year

  • Introductory Biology (BIO 1310-1320)
  • Introductory Chemistry (CHEM 1110-1120)
  • Calculus (MATH 1120 or 1910)
  • Statistics (STAT 1210)
  • Physics for the Life Sciences (PHYS 1210 and 1220)
  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030
  • Introductory Environmental Studies (ENV 1010) or a human or animal health course (BIO 1020 or 1030) or Electives

Second Year

  • Biodiversity courses (BIO 2020, 2040, 2060)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology and/or Ecology and/or Genetics (BIO 2210, 2220, 2230, 2240)
  • Organic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry or Biochemistry (CHEM 2410-2420 or 2430; CHEM 2020; CHEM 3530 or BIO 2250)
  • Nutrition 2210 or Physics 2430. Students interested in a Medical and biological Physics minor should take Physics 2220, Modern Physics for Life Sciences [can also be taken in third year]
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Third Year

  • Core physiology or evolution (BIO 3260 or 3820)
  • Research Methods and Communications (BIO 3310)
  • Molecular Biology Research Techniques (BIO 3520) or Biomedical Imaging (PHYS 3520) [can also be taken in fourth year]
  • *Biology electives (2000 level or above) as indicated above for your specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Fourth Year

  • Two Biology electives at 4000 level from the required specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the "General Biology" section may be used as "alternate electives" in any specialization
  • Certain Biology 4410 (Directed studies) or 4420 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one specialization or the other with prior permission of the Chair.
  • Courses that are required components for one specialization or the other (e.g. Biology 2210 and 3260 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 2220 and 3820 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as "alternate" electives for the other specialization. Bio 2020, 2040 and 2060 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Elective courses in the Life Sciences Specialization

*Biology 2260 - Human Anatomy and Histology
Physics 2430 - Physics of the Human Body
*Biology 3110 - Plants and People
Biology 3750 - Medical Microbiology
Biology 3220 - Bioinformatics
*Biology 3230 - Genetics II
*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3240 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 4010 - Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
*Biology 4020 - Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
*Biology 4030 - Developmental Biology
*Biology 4040 - Endocrinology
*Biology 4050 - Medical Biology
Biology 4350 - Biology of Sex
Biology 4710 - Molecular Biotechnology
*Biology 4720 - Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
Biology 4750 - Basic and Clinical Immunology
Paramedicine 4010 - Social Determinants of Health
Foods and Nutrition 4520 - Aging: Biological & Lifestyle Perspectives

Refer to the current admission requirements to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program.

Elective courses in the Environmental Biology Specialization 

*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3140 - Plant Community Ecology
*Biology 3270 - Field Coastal Ecology
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3510 - Ornithology
*Biology 3610 - Biology of Fishes
*Biology 3660 - Plant-Animal Interactions
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 3910 - Marine Biology
*Biology 4110 - Wildlife Biology
*Biology 4130 - Conservation Genetics
*Biology 4520 - Biogeography and Macroecology
*Biology 4540 - Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
*Biology 4620 - Watershed Ecology
*Biology 4650 - Marine Community Ecology
*Biology 4850 - Environmental Toxicology

Elective courses in the General Biology Program (can be used as "alternate" stream courses)

*Biology 2020 - Botany
*Biology 2040 - Zoology
*Biology 2060 - Microbiology
Biology 3120 - History of Biology
*Biology 3520 - Molecular Biology Research Techniques
*Biology 4210 - Design and Analysis of Biological Studies

Minor

Minor in Biology

To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses. The requirements for a minor in Biology are:

Biology 1310-1320 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 2000 level or above (15 semester hours)

Total Semester Hours = 21

Faculty
  • J. Charles Cheverie, Professor Emeritus
  • Donna J. Giberson, Professor Emeritus
  • Louis A. Hanic, Professor Emeritus
  • Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Professor, Chair
  • Robert Hurta, Professor
  • Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
  • Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
  • Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
  • James R. Kemp, Associate Professor
  • Pedro Quijon, Associate Professor
  • Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
  • Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor
  • H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
  • Joel Ross, Assistant Professor
  • Karen Samis, Assistant Professor
  • Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
  • Adam Fenech, Adjunct Professor
  • Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
  • Natacha Hogan, Adjunct Professor
  • Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
  • David McCorquodale, Adjunct Professor
  • Andre-St-Hillaire, Adjunct Professor

Overview

The Biology Department at UPEI has a strong tradition of helping people realize their potential through deep consideration of the biological world. A scientific understanding of the plants and animals is, in many ways, its own reward. But it is also a pathway to a large number of exciting and fulfilling career opportunities. A biology program is a common route toward the health professions (human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, etc.), for which we offer strong pre-professional programs. It can also lead to careers in environmental analysis, biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics, and many other things. Biology graduates also often establish other sorts of careers (lawyer, business professional) for which the knowledge of biology can be a strong personal and professional asset.

The strength of our educational programs derive from the strength of our scholarly activity and research. Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Atlantic Innovation Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Prince Edward Island Health Research Institute, among others. Our faculty have research programs in neurobiology, arctic insect ecology, cancer cell biology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, heart and stroke physiology, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Dr. Marva Sweeney-Nixon
UPEI Department of Biology

Honours

The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 440.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 490: Advanced Research and Thesis.

Course Requirements of the Honours Program

Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program with the addition of Biology 490 and two other Biology electives (taken from any stream). These would normally be completed in the student’s final year.

Fourth Year: Honours Biology

  • *Two Biology electives at 4000 level (6 semester hours); (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
  • *Two additional Biology electives at the 2000 level or above (6 semester hours)
  • Biology 4900 (Advanced Research and Thesis) (12 semester hours)
  • Electives (6 semester hours)

* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability. Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student's third year.

PERFORMANCE

To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree.  Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

 

Major

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN BIOLOGY

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Science according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. Students in the 'pre-vet' program should follow the Life Sciences specialization, and may select courses of interest in animal biology or other areas.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream. The Life Sciences specialization may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate studies related to veterinary medicine ('pre-vet'), human health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization may be of interest to students interested in careers or graduate studies related to biodiversity and conservation, or wildlife biology in the modern context of climate change and human interactions. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Modern Biology.

Refer to the Specializations tab for course structures of all biology major specializations.

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1310-1320 6
Two of Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060 6
Two of Biology 2210, 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3260 or 3520 or 3820 3
Biology 3310 3
at least six additional Biology electives that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed under the Specializations tab.

Specializations

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION, including PRE-VET

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1020 or 1030 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2040 and 2060 6
Biology 2210 and either 2230 or 2240 6
Foods and Nutrition 2110 or Physics 2430 3
Biology 3260 3
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3520 or Physics 3520 3

at least five additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and be from Life Sciences
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Life Sciences Specialization list
- at least one must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists

15

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as below. 

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Core Courses Hours Credit
Environmental Studies 1010 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060  9
Biology 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3820 3
at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
- at least two must be at the 4000 level and from the Environmental Biology list
- at least an additional two must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
- at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed below. 

REQUIRED COURSES FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS

  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030 (3 credit hours)
  • Chemistry:
    • Chemistry 1110 and 1120 (6 credit hours)
    • Chemistry 2410-2420 or Chemistry 2430 (3 or 6 credit hours - credit will not be given for both Chemistry 2430 and Chemistry 2410 or 2420)
    • Chemistry 3530 or Biology 2250 (3 credit hours - required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 3530 or 2020 is required for Environmental Biology)
  • Physics:
    • Physics 1210 (or 1110) and Physics 1220 (or 1120) (6 credit hours)
  • Mathematics and Statistics:
    • Math 1120 or Math 1910 (3 or 4 credit hours)
    • Stat 1210 (formerly 2210) (3 credit hours)
      • Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 1910-1920 is required: therefore Mathematics 1910-1920 may be taken in place of Mathematics 1120 but the statistics requirement of Statistics 1210 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 1120 and Mathematics 1910.
  • Other electives: The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major (a total of 120 semester hours) will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses.


SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

First Year

  • Introductory Biology (BIO 1310-1320)
  • Introductory Chemistry (CHEM 1110-1120)
  • Calculus (MATH 1120 or 1910)
  • Statistics (STAT 1210)
  • Physics for the Life Sciences (PHYS 1210 and 1220)
  • One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030
  • Introductory Environmental Studies (ENV 1010) or a human or animal health course (BIO 1020 or 1030) or Electives

Second Year

  • Biodiversity courses (BIO 2020, 2040, 2060)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology and/or Ecology and/or Genetics (BIO 2210, 2220, 2230, 2240)
  • Organic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry or Biochemistry (CHEM 2410-2420 or 2430; CHEM 2020; CHEM 3530 or BIO 2250)
  • Nutrition 2210 or Physics 2430. Students interested in a Medical and biological Physics minor should take Physics 2220, Modern Physics for Life Sciences [can also be taken in third year]
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Third Year

  • Core physiology or evolution (BIO 3260 or 3820)
  • Research Methods and Communications (BIO 3310)
  • Molecular Biology Research Techniques (BIO 3520) or Biomedical Imaging (PHYS 3520) [can also be taken in fourth year]
  • *Biology electives (2000 level or above) as indicated above for your specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Fourth Year

  • Two Biology electives at 4000 level from the required specialization
  • Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the "General Biology" section may be used as "alternate electives" in any specialization
  • Certain Biology 4410 (Directed studies) or 4420 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one specialization or the other with prior permission of the Chair.
  • Courses that are required components for one specialization or the other (e.g. Biology 2210 and 3260 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 2220 and 3820 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as "alternate" electives for the other specialization. Bio 2020, 2040 and 2060 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Elective courses in the Life Sciences Specialization

*Biology 2260 - Human Anatomy and Histology
Physics 2430 - Physics of the Human Body
*Biology 3110 - Plants and People
Biology 3750 - Medical Microbiology
Biology 3220 - Bioinformatics
*Biology 3230 - Genetics II
*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3240 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 4010 - Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
*Biology 4020 - Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
*Biology 4030 - Developmental Biology
*Biology 4040 - Endocrinology
*Biology 4050 - Medical Biology
Biology 4350 - Biology of Sex
Biology 4710 - Molecular Biotechnology
*Biology 4720 - Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
Biology 4750 - Basic and Clinical Immunology
Paramedicine 4010 - Social Determinants of Health
Foods and Nutrition 4520 - Aging: Biological & Lifestyle Perspectives

Refer to the current admission requirements to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program.

Elective courses in the Environmental Biology Specialization 

*Biology 3040 - Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3140 - Plant Community Ecology
*Biology 3270 - Field Coastal Ecology
*Biology 3350 - Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3510 - Ornithology
*Biology 3610 - Biology of Fishes
*Biology 3660 - Plant-Animal Interactions
*Biology 3710 - Life of Mammals
*Biology 3910 - Marine Biology
*Biology 4110 - Wildlife Biology
*Biology 4130 - Conservation Genetics
*Biology 4520 - Biogeography and Macroecology
*Biology 4540 - Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
*Biology 4620 - Watershed Ecology
*Biology 4650 - Marine Community Ecology
*Biology 4850 - Environmental Toxicology

Elective courses in the General Biology Program (can be used as "alternate" stream courses)

*Biology 2020 - Botany
*Biology 2040 - Zoology
*Biology 2060 - Microbiology
Biology 3120 - History of Biology
*Biology 3520 - Molecular Biology Research Techniques
*Biology 4210 - Design and Analysis of Biological Studies

Minor

Minor in Biology

To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses. The requirements for a minor in Biology are:

Biology 1310-1320 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 2000 level or above (15 semester hours)

Total Semester Hours = 21

Faculty

  • J. Charles Cheverie, Professor Emeritus
  • Donna J. Giberson, Professor Emeritus
  • Louis A. Hanic, Professor Emeritus
  • Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Professor, Chair
  • Robert Hurta, Professor
  • Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
  • Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
  • Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
  • James R. Kemp, Associate Professor
  • Pedro Quijon, Associate Professor
  • Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
  • Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor
  • H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
  • Joel Ross, Assistant Professor
  • Karen Samis, Assistant Professor
  • Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
  • Adam Fenech, Adjunct Professor
  • Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
  • Natacha Hogan, Adjunct Professor
  • Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
  • David McCorquodale, Adjunct Professor
  • Andre-St-Hillaire, Adjunct Professor
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Course Level: 
1000 Level
Courses: 

Notes regarding 1000-level Biology courses

  • Biology 1310 and 1320 are Introductory Biology courses and are the prerequisites for upper level Biology courses. Take these courses if you plan to complete a Biology major or minor, or if your program requires one or both courses. Biology 1010 is not accepted for credit in the Biology Majors program.
  • Biology 1020 and 1030 are introductory courses for students in the Life Science specialization, but any student may take these courses.
  • Biology 1060 and 1220 are restricted to students enrolled in programs offered by the Faculty of Nursing and the Department of Applied Human Sciences.

A combined average of at least 60% is a prerequisite for all Biology courses above the 1000 level. However, this course prerequisite may also be met by the successful completion of a qualifying examination to be offered each year on the first Tuesday after Labour Day. This examination, which shall cover material from both Biology 1310 and 1320 is open to those who have passing grades for both Biology 1310 and 1320, but who do not have a combined average of at least 60%. To be admitted to Biology courses above the 1000 level, students must achieve a score of 65% on the qualifying examination. The score on the qualifying exam will not replace those attained in Biology 1310 and 1320, nor shall it be factored into any calculation of grades for graduation, scholarships or other purposes. This course prerequisite may also be waived with the permission of the Chair for individual courses.

BIO-1010 Current Issues in Environmental Biology
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1010 Lab
3 hours credit
BIO-1020 Human Health
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body as the biological foundation of human health and disease. Course topics will include a survey of human organ systems and prevalent diseases of the adult human, introducing concepts of disease prevention and wellness. Three hours lecture a week
3 hours credit
BIO-1030 Animal Health
An introductory course dealing with current issues related to animal health and disease in a global context. Course topics will introduce causes of disease in animals and the principles of maintaining healthy animals, as well as an interdisciplinary overview of the role and importance of animal health in modern society.
3 hours credit
BIO-1060 Introductory Microbiology for Health Sciences
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts and principles of microbiology. The structure and function of the major groups -viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa-which affect human health, are studied. Topics include the process of disease transmission, immunology, physical and chemical methods of disease prevention and control, as well as major infectious diseases of the body systems. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Restriction: Students must be registered in the Nursing or Foods and Nutrition Programs or have permission of the Chair. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both VPM 1010/BIO 1060 and BIO 2060.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1060 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1210 Human Anatomy
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1210 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1220 Human Physiology
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week. Restriction: Student must be registered in the Nursing, Kinesiology, Foods and Nutrition, or Family Science programs
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1220 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1230 Essentials of Human Physiology
This lecture-only course deals with the functioning of the human body and is designed for students applying to post-graduate health science degrees where a prerequisite human physiology course is required. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO 1220 and BIO 1230. Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
3 hours credit
BIO-1310 Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1320 Introduction to Organisms
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1320 Lab Section ; Biology 1310 or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
Course Level: 
2000 Level
Courses: 
BIO-2020 Botany
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2040 Zoology
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2060 Microbiology
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week. NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 Lab Section; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310
3 hours credit
BIO-2090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 2000 level.
3 hours credit
BIO-2210 Cell Biology
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310; Biology 2210T
3 hours credit
BIO-2220 Ecology
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2230 Genetics I
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA inheritance, recombination, replication and mutation, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving, probability and statistics in tutorials. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week NOTE: Biology majors and minors are expected to take BIO-2230. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 2230T
3 hours credit
BIO-2240 Human Genetics
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA replication and mutation, recombinant DNA, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on human genetics in tutorials. Cross-listed with Biology 2230 Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. NOTE: Paramedicine majors are expected to take BIO-2240. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310; Bio-2240T
3 hours credit
BIO-2250 Human Biochemistry
This course is an introduction to the major classes of biomolecules and their main metabolic pathways. Special attention is paid to the biochemistry in the context of human metabolism, nutrition and disease. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-2250 and CHEM-3530
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 and Chemistry 1110
3 hours credit
BIO-2260 Human Anatomy and Histology
(formerly 3530) This course covers the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough overview of human cells,tissues,organs and organ systems. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course,lectures focus on gross anatomy while laboratories emphasize the structure of tissues(histology)in skeletal,muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Cross-listed with Biology 1210. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-1210 and BIO-2260. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 3530L
3 hours credit
Course Level: 
3000 Level
Courses: 
BIO-3040 Vertebrate Zoology
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3040 Lab Section ; Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 3000 level.
PREREQUISITE: BIO-2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3110 Plants and People
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3110 Lab Section ; Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-3120 History of Biology
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or departmental permission. For students registered in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310; Bio-3120T
3 hours credit
BIO-3140 Plant Community Ecology
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3140L
3 hours credit
BIO-3220 Information on Bioinformatics
This course is an introduction to bioinformatics, with a focus on a practical guide to the analysis of data on genes and proteins. It familiarizes students with the tools and principles of contemporary bioinformatics. Students acquire a working knowledge of a variety of publicly available data and computational tools important in bioinformatics, and a grasp of the underlying principles enabling them to evaluate and use novel techniques as they arise in the future. Cross-listed with Computer Science, Pathology/Microbiology, Human Biology (cf. CS 3220, VPM 8850, HB 8850) Three lecture hours and a one-hour laboratory session per week Note: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220 and BIO 3220.
PREREQUISITE: Computer Science 2610 or Biology 2230 or permission of instructor.; Biology 3220L
3 hours credit
BIO-3230 Genetics II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3230L
3 hours credit
BIO-3240 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 2040, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3240L
3 hours credit
BIO-3260 Introductory Physiology of Cells and Organisms
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210 and six credit hours of core Biology courses at the 2000 level; Biology 3260L
3 hours credit
BIO-3270 Field Coastal Ecology
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, or Biology 2040, or Biology 2220; Biology 3270L
3 hours credit
BIO-3310 Research Methods and Communications in Biology
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures, exercises and assignments focus on science writing, critical reading, the principles of study design, and the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data. Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3310L; Take Biology 1310 Biology 1320 and 6 credits from Biology 2020, Biology 2040 Biology 2060 and Biology 2210
3 hours credit
BIO-3350 Animal Behaviour
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3350L
3 hours credit
BIO-3510 Ornithology
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week. NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3510L
3 hours credit
BIO-3520 Molecular Biology Research Techniques
This course introduces students to basic techniques in molecular biology. Lectures will cover theoretical aspects of research in the biologic sciences, such as WHMIS, BioSafety, animals as research subjects, PCR, BLAST analysis. In laboratories, students will work on projects to learn current methodologies in molecular biology such as DNA extraction and sequencing, PCR, and gel electrophoresis. 2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-3610 Biology of Fishes
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3610L
3 hours credit
BIO-3660 Plant-Animal Interactions
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3660L
3 hours credit
BIO-3710 Life of Mammals
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 and 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3710L
3 hours credit
BIO-3750 Medical Microbiology
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-3820 Evolutionary Biology
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3820L
3 hours credit
BIO-3910 Marine Biology
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3910L
3 hours credit
Course Level: 
4000 Level
Courses: 
BIO-4010 Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies. Cross-listed with Nursing (cf. Nursing 6010). Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week. NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4010 and Nursing 6010
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3260 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor; Biology 4010L
3 hours credit
BIO-4020 Comparative and Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 and Biology 326 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4020L
3 hours credit
BIO-4030 Developmental Biology
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210; Biology 4030L
3 hours credit
BIO-4040 Endocrinology
This course is an in depth study of animal hormones, with a focus on modern-day endocrinology issues of interest to students. Topics include anatomy and physiology of hormones and glands, hormone actions from molecular to whole organism levels, biorhythms, reproduction and development, comparison of endocrine systems among animal classes, hormones in disease and medicine, eco-toxicological effects of hormones, and methods used to study endocrinology. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-4050 Medical Biology
This course extends principles of biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology in the context of human diseases and treatment. Using a case-study and discussion format, the course explores advanced studies in biochemical pathways in humans, molecular regulation of biochemistry, human diseases related to altered biochemical pathways, and pharmacology. 3 hours lectures per week.
3 hours credit
BIO-4110 Principles of Wildlife Biology
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, Biology 2040, and Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4110L
3 hours credit
BIO-4130 Conservation Genetics
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 4130 Lab Section; Biology 2220 and Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-4150 Wildlife Health
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Biology 1310, and Biology 2220; Biology 4150L
3 hours credit
BIO-4210 Design and Analysis of Biological Study
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods. Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week
PREREQUISITE: Statistics 1210 and Biology 3310 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4210L
3 hours credit
BIO-4350 The Biology of Sex
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3350 and Biology 3820; Bio-4350T
3 hours credit
BIO-4400 Senior Undergraduate Research Project
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.) Restriction: Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
3 hours credit
BIO-4410 Directed Studies
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing and 12 credit hours in the Department of Biology
3 hours credit
BIO-4420 Special Topics in Biology
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. Three semester hours of credit. Restriction: Student must have third or fourth year standing in Biology
PREREQUISITE: Must completed Biology 3260 and Chemistry 3530
3 hours credit
BIO-4440 Investigative Plant Anatomy
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-4520 Biogeography and Macroecology
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and 3140. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4520L
3 hours credit
BIO-4540 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4540L
3 hours credit
BIO-4620 Watershed Ecology
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or equivalent; Biology 4620L
3 hours credit
BIO-4650 Marine Community Ecology
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and Biology 3910 or permission of instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4650L
3 hours credit
BIO-4710 Molecular Biotechnology
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230
3 hours credit
BIO-4720 Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. Note: Credit is not given for both Biology 4720 and HB 8720.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 and Biology 2210; Biology 4720L
3 hours credit
BIO-4750 Basic and Clinical Immunology
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-4850 Environmental Toxicology
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 1110 and Chemistry 1120; Biology 4850L; Combined Average of 60% in Biology 1310 and 1320
3 hours credit
BIO-4900 Advanced Research and Thesis
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology.
6 hours credit
BIO-4901 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part I
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology. NOTE: To receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be completed consecutively in one academic year.
6 hours credit
BIO-4902 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part II
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours Program in Biology. NOTE: to receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be taken consecutively in one academic year.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 49001
6 hours credit
BIO-4910 Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum
This course provides practical experience and leadership in an area of wildlife conservation or environmental management. Students work in teams with an environmental organization on a specific project or task for 6 weeks, compile research, and present their findings in a written report and oral presentation. Three hours lecture or seminar a week. Semester hours of credit: 3
PREREQUISITE: Biology 331. Biology majors in the Environmental Biology specialization may take this course with permission of the Coordinator of the BWC program or the Chair of Biology
3 hours credit

Calendar Courses

Notes regarding 1000-level Biology courses

  • Biology 1310 and 1320 are Introductory Biology courses and are the prerequisites for upper level Biology courses. Take these courses if you plan to complete a Biology major or minor, or if your program requires one or both courses. Biology 1010 is not accepted for credit in the Biology Majors program.
  • Biology 1020 and 1030 are introductory courses for students in the Life Science specialization, but any student may take these courses.
  • Biology 1060 and 1220 are restricted to students enrolled in programs offered by the Faculty of Nursing and the Department of Applied Human Sciences.

A combined average of at least 60% is a prerequisite for all Biology courses above the 1000 level. However, this course prerequisite may also be met by the successful completion of a qualifying examination to be offered each year on the first Tuesday after Labour Day. This examination, which shall cover material from both Biology 1310 and 1320 is open to those who have passing grades for both Biology 1310 and 1320, but who do not have a combined average of at least 60%. To be admitted to Biology courses above the 1000 level, students must achieve a score of 65% on the qualifying examination. The score on the qualifying exam will not replace those attained in Biology 1310 and 1320, nor shall it be factored into any calculation of grades for graduation, scholarships or other purposes. This course prerequisite may also be waived with the permission of the Chair for individual courses.

BIO-1010 Current Issues in Environmental Biology
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1010 Lab
3 hours credit
BIO-1020 Human Health
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body as the biological foundation of human health and disease. Course topics will include a survey of human organ systems and prevalent diseases of the adult human, introducing concepts of disease prevention and wellness. Three hours lecture a week
3 hours credit
BIO-1030 Animal Health
An introductory course dealing with current issues related to animal health and disease in a global context. Course topics will introduce causes of disease in animals and the principles of maintaining healthy animals, as well as an interdisciplinary overview of the role and importance of animal health in modern society.
3 hours credit
BIO-1060 Introductory Microbiology for Health Sciences
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts and principles of microbiology. The structure and function of the major groups -viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa-which affect human health, are studied. Topics include the process of disease transmission, immunology, physical and chemical methods of disease prevention and control, as well as major infectious diseases of the body systems. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Restriction: Students must be registered in the Nursing or Foods and Nutrition Programs or have permission of the Chair. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both VPM 1010/BIO 1060 and BIO 2060.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1060 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1210 Human Anatomy
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1210 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1220 Human Physiology
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week. Restriction: Student must be registered in the Nursing, Kinesiology, Foods and Nutrition, or Family Science programs
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1220 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1230 Essentials of Human Physiology
This lecture-only course deals with the functioning of the human body and is designed for students applying to post-graduate health science degrees where a prerequisite human physiology course is required. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO 1220 and BIO 1230. Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
3 hours credit
BIO-1310 Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1320 Introduction to Organisms
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1320 Lab Section ; Biology 1310 or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-2020 Botany
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2040 Zoology
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2060 Microbiology
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week. NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 Lab Section; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310
3 hours credit
BIO-2090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 2000 level.
3 hours credit
BIO-2210 Cell Biology
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310; Biology 2210T
3 hours credit
BIO-2220 Ecology
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2230 Genetics I
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA inheritance, recombination, replication and mutation, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving, probability and statistics in tutorials. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week NOTE: Biology majors and minors are expected to take BIO-2230. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 2230T
3 hours credit
BIO-2240 Human Genetics
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA replication and mutation, recombinant DNA, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on human genetics in tutorials. Cross-listed with Biology 2230 Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. NOTE: Paramedicine majors are expected to take BIO-2240. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310; Bio-2240T
3 hours credit
BIO-2250 Human Biochemistry
This course is an introduction to the major classes of biomolecules and their main metabolic pathways. Special attention is paid to the biochemistry in the context of human metabolism, nutrition and disease. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-2250 and CHEM-3530
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 and Chemistry 1110
3 hours credit
BIO-2260 Human Anatomy and Histology
(formerly 3530) This course covers the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough overview of human cells,tissues,organs and organ systems. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course,lectures focus on gross anatomy while laboratories emphasize the structure of tissues(histology)in skeletal,muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Cross-listed with Biology 1210. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-1210 and BIO-2260. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 3530L
3 hours credit
BIO-3040 Vertebrate Zoology
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3040 Lab Section ; Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 3000 level.
PREREQUISITE: BIO-2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3110 Plants and People
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3110 Lab Section ; Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-3120 History of Biology
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or departmental permission. For students registered in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310; Bio-3120T
3 hours credit
BIO-3140 Plant Community Ecology
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3140L
3 hours credit
BIO-3220 Information on Bioinformatics
This course is an introduction to bioinformatics, with a focus on a practical guide to the analysis of data on genes and proteins. It familiarizes students with the tools and principles of contemporary bioinformatics. Students acquire a working knowledge of a variety of publicly available data and computational tools important in bioinformatics, and a grasp of the underlying principles enabling them to evaluate and use novel techniques as they arise in the future. Cross-listed with Computer Science, Pathology/Microbiology, Human Biology (cf. CS 3220, VPM 8850, HB 8850) Three lecture hours and a one-hour laboratory session per week Note: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220 and BIO 3220.
PREREQUISITE: Computer Science 2610 or Biology 2230 or permission of instructor.; Biology 3220L
3 hours credit
BIO-3230 Genetics II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3230L
3 hours credit
BIO-3240 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 2040, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3240L
3 hours credit
BIO-3260 Introductory Physiology of Cells and Organisms
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210 and six credit hours of core Biology courses at the 2000 level; Biology 3260L
3 hours credit
BIO-3270 Field Coastal Ecology
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, or Biology 2040, or Biology 2220; Biology 3270L
3 hours credit
BIO-3310 Research Methods and Communications in Biology
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures, exercises and assignments focus on science writing, critical reading, the principles of study design, and the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data. Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3310L; Take Biology 1310 Biology 1320 and 6 credits from Biology 2020, Biology 2040 Biology 2060 and Biology 2210
3 hours credit
BIO-3350 Animal Behaviour
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3350L
3 hours credit
BIO-3510 Ornithology
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week. NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3510L
3 hours credit
BIO-3520 Molecular Biology Research Techniques
This course introduces students to basic techniques in molecular biology. Lectures will cover theoretical aspects of research in the biologic sciences, such as WHMIS, BioSafety, animals as research subjects, PCR, BLAST analysis. In laboratories, students will work on projects to learn current methodologies in molecular biology such as DNA extraction and sequencing, PCR, and gel electrophoresis. 2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-3610 Biology of Fishes
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3610L
3 hours credit
BIO-3660 Plant-Animal Interactions
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3660L
3 hours credit
BIO-3710 Life of Mammals
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 and 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3710L
3 hours credit
BIO-3750 Medical Microbiology
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-3820 Evolutionary Biology
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3820L
3 hours credit
BIO-3910 Marine Biology
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3910L
3 hours credit
BIO-4010 Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies. Cross-listed with Nursing (cf. Nursing 6010). Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week. NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4010 and Nursing 6010
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3260 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor; Biology 4010L
3 hours credit
BIO-4020 Comparative and Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 and Biology 326 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4020L
3 hours credit
BIO-4030 Developmental Biology
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210; Biology 4030L
3 hours credit
BIO-4040 Endocrinology
This course is an in depth study of animal hormones, with a focus on modern-day endocrinology issues of interest to students. Topics include anatomy and physiology of hormones and glands, hormone actions from molecular to whole organism levels, biorhythms, reproduction and development, comparison of endocrine systems among animal classes, hormones in disease and medicine, eco-toxicological effects of hormones, and methods used to study endocrinology. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-4050 Medical Biology
This course extends principles of biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology in the context of human diseases and treatment. Using a case-study and discussion format, the course explores advanced studies in biochemical pathways in humans, molecular regulation of biochemistry, human diseases related to altered biochemical pathways, and pharmacology. 3 hours lectures per week.
3 hours credit
BIO-4110 Principles of Wildlife Biology
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, Biology 2040, and Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4110L
3 hours credit
BIO-4130 Conservation Genetics
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 4130 Lab Section; Biology 2220 and Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-4150 Wildlife Health
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Biology 1310, and Biology 2220; Biology 4150L
3 hours credit
BIO-4210 Design and Analysis of Biological Study
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods. Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week
PREREQUISITE: Statistics 1210 and Biology 3310 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4210L
3 hours credit
BIO-4350 The Biology of Sex
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3350 and Biology 3820; Bio-4350T
3 hours credit
BIO-4400 Senior Undergraduate Research Project
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.) Restriction: Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
3 hours credit
BIO-4410 Directed Studies
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing and 12 credit hours in the Department of Biology
3 hours credit
BIO-4420 Special Topics in Biology
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. Three semester hours of credit. Restriction: Student must have third or fourth year standing in Biology
PREREQUISITE: Must completed Biology 3260 and Chemistry 3530
3 hours credit
BIO-4440 Investigative Plant Anatomy
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-4520 Biogeography and Macroecology
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and 3140. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4520L
3 hours credit
BIO-4540 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4540L
3 hours credit
BIO-4620 Watershed Ecology
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or equivalent; Biology 4620L
3 hours credit
BIO-4650 Marine Community Ecology
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and Biology 3910 or permission of instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4650L
3 hours credit
BIO-4710 Molecular Biotechnology
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230
3 hours credit
BIO-4720 Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. Note: Credit is not given for both Biology 4720 and HB 8720.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 and Biology 2210; Biology 4720L
3 hours credit
BIO-4750 Basic and Clinical Immunology
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-4850 Environmental Toxicology
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 1110 and Chemistry 1120; Biology 4850L; Combined Average of 60% in Biology 1310 and 1320
3 hours credit
BIO-4900 Advanced Research and Thesis
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology.
6 hours credit
BIO-4901 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part I
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology. NOTE: To receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be completed consecutively in one academic year.
6 hours credit
BIO-4902 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part II
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours Program in Biology. NOTE: to receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be taken consecutively in one academic year.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 49001
6 hours credit
BIO-4910 Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum
This course provides practical experience and leadership in an area of wildlife conservation or environmental management. Students work in teams with an environmental organization on a specific project or task for 6 weeks, compile research, and present their findings in a written report and oral presentation. Three hours lecture or seminar a week. Semester hours of credit: 3
PREREQUISITE: Biology 331. Biology majors in the Environmental Biology specialization may take this course with permission of the Coordinator of the BWC program or the Chair of Biology
3 hours credit

Calendar Courses

1000 Level

Notes regarding 1000-level Biology courses

  • Biology 1310 and 1320 are Introductory Biology courses and are the prerequisites for upper level Biology courses. Take these courses if you plan to complete a Biology major or minor, or if your program requires one or both courses. Biology 1010 is not accepted for credit in the Biology Majors program.
  • Biology 1020 and 1030 are introductory courses for students in the Life Science specialization, but any student may take these courses.
  • Biology 1060 and 1220 are restricted to students enrolled in programs offered by the Faculty of Nursing and the Department of Applied Human Sciences.

A combined average of at least 60% is a prerequisite for all Biology courses above the 1000 level. However, this course prerequisite may also be met by the successful completion of a qualifying examination to be offered each year on the first Tuesday after Labour Day. This examination, which shall cover material from both Biology 1310 and 1320 is open to those who have passing grades for both Biology 1310 and 1320, but who do not have a combined average of at least 60%. To be admitted to Biology courses above the 1000 level, students must achieve a score of 65% on the qualifying examination. The score on the qualifying exam will not replace those attained in Biology 1310 and 1320, nor shall it be factored into any calculation of grades for graduation, scholarships or other purposes. This course prerequisite may also be waived with the permission of the Chair for individual courses.

BIO-1010 Current Issues in Environmental Biology
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1010 Lab
3 hours credit
BIO-1020 Human Health
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body as the biological foundation of human health and disease. Course topics will include a survey of human organ systems and prevalent diseases of the adult human, introducing concepts of disease prevention and wellness. Three hours lecture a week
3 hours credit
BIO-1030 Animal Health
An introductory course dealing with current issues related to animal health and disease in a global context. Course topics will introduce causes of disease in animals and the principles of maintaining healthy animals, as well as an interdisciplinary overview of the role and importance of animal health in modern society.
3 hours credit
BIO-1060 Introductory Microbiology for Health Sciences
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts and principles of microbiology. The structure and function of the major groups -viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa-which affect human health, are studied. Topics include the process of disease transmission, immunology, physical and chemical methods of disease prevention and control, as well as major infectious diseases of the body systems. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Restriction: Students must be registered in the Nursing or Foods and Nutrition Programs or have permission of the Chair. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both VPM 1010/BIO 1060 and BIO 2060.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1060 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1210 Human Anatomy
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1210 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1220 Human Physiology
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week. Restriction: Student must be registered in the Nursing, Kinesiology, Foods and Nutrition, or Family Science programs
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1220 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1230 Essentials of Human Physiology
This lecture-only course deals with the functioning of the human body and is designed for students applying to post-graduate health science degrees where a prerequisite human physiology course is required. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO 1220 and BIO 1230. Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair
3 hours credit
BIO-1310 Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week Prerequisite: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 0001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 Lab Section
3 hours credit
BIO-1320 Introduction to Organisms
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1320 Lab Section ; Biology 1310 or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit

2000 Level

BIO-2020 Botany
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2040 Zoology
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2060 Microbiology
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week. NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 Lab Section; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310
3 hours credit
BIO-2090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 2000 level.
3 hours credit
BIO-2210 Cell Biology
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition: Biology 1310; Biology 2210T
3 hours credit
BIO-2220 Ecology
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 Lab Section ; A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
3 hours credit
BIO-2230 Genetics I
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA inheritance, recombination, replication and mutation, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving, probability and statistics in tutorials. Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week NOTE: Biology majors and minors are expected to take BIO-2230. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 2230T
3 hours credit
BIO-2240 Human Genetics
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA replication and mutation, recombinant DNA, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on human genetics in tutorials. Cross-listed with Biology 2230 Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. NOTE: Paramedicine majors are expected to take BIO-2240. Students will not get credit for both BIO-2230 and BIO-2240.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310; Bio-2240T
3 hours credit
BIO-2250 Human Biochemistry
This course is an introduction to the major classes of biomolecules and their main metabolic pathways. Special attention is paid to the biochemistry in the context of human metabolism, nutrition and disease. Three hours lecture a week. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-2250 and CHEM-3530
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 and Chemistry 1110
3 hours credit
BIO-2260 Human Anatomy and Histology
(formerly 3530) This course covers the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough overview of human cells,tissues,organs and organ systems. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course,lectures focus on gross anatomy while laboratories emphasize the structure of tissues(histology)in skeletal,muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Cross-listed with Biology 1210. NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-1210 and BIO-2260. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320; Biology 3530L
3 hours credit

3000 Level

BIO-3040 Vertebrate Zoology
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3040 Lab Section ; Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3090 Special Topics
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 3000 level.
PREREQUISITE: BIO-2220
3 hours credit
BIO-3110 Plants and People
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3110 Lab Section ; Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-3120 History of Biology
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or departmental permission. For students registered in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310; Bio-3120T
3 hours credit
BIO-3140 Plant Community Ecology
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3140L
3 hours credit
BIO-3220 Information on Bioinformatics
This course is an introduction to bioinformatics, with a focus on a practical guide to the analysis of data on genes and proteins. It familiarizes students with the tools and principles of contemporary bioinformatics. Students acquire a working knowledge of a variety of publicly available data and computational tools important in bioinformatics, and a grasp of the underlying principles enabling them to evaluate and use novel techniques as they arise in the future. Cross-listed with Computer Science, Pathology/Microbiology, Human Biology (cf. CS 3220, VPM 8850, HB 8850) Three lecture hours and a one-hour laboratory session per week Note: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220 and BIO 3220.
PREREQUISITE: Computer Science 2610 or Biology 2230 or permission of instructor.; Biology 3220L
3 hours credit
BIO-3230 Genetics II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3230L
3 hours credit
BIO-3240 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 2040, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3240L
3 hours credit
BIO-3260 Introductory Physiology of Cells and Organisms
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210 and six credit hours of core Biology courses at the 2000 level; Biology 3260L
3 hours credit
BIO-3270 Field Coastal Ecology
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, or Biology 2040, or Biology 2220; Biology 3270L
3 hours credit
BIO-3310 Research Methods and Communications in Biology
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures, exercises and assignments focus on science writing, critical reading, the principles of study design, and the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data. Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3310L; Take Biology 1310 Biology 1320 and 6 credits from Biology 2020, Biology 2040 Biology 2060 and Biology 2210
3 hours credit
BIO-3350 Animal Behaviour
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3350L
3 hours credit
BIO-3510 Ornithology
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week. NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3510L
3 hours credit
BIO-3520 Molecular Biology Research Techniques
This course introduces students to basic techniques in molecular biology. Lectures will cover theoretical aspects of research in the biologic sciences, such as WHMIS, BioSafety, animals as research subjects, PCR, BLAST analysis. In laboratories, students will work on projects to learn current methodologies in molecular biology such as DNA extraction and sequencing, PCR, and gel electrophoresis. 2 hours lecture, 4 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-3610 Biology of Fishes
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3610L
3 hours credit
BIO-3660 Plant-Animal Interactions
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220; Biology 3660L
3 hours credit
BIO-3710 Life of Mammals
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 and 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3710L
3 hours credit
BIO-3750 Medical Microbiology
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-3820 Evolutionary Biology
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 3820L
3 hours credit
BIO-3910 Marine Biology
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040 or Biology 2220; Biology 3910L
3 hours credit

4000 Level

BIO-4010 Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies. Cross-listed with Nursing (cf. Nursing 6010). Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week. NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4010 and Nursing 6010
PREREQUISITE: Biology 3260 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor; Biology 4010L
3 hours credit
BIO-4020 Comparative and Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 and Biology 326 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4020L
3 hours credit
BIO-4030 Developmental Biology
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210; Biology 4030L
3 hours credit
BIO-4040 Endocrinology
This course is an in depth study of animal hormones, with a focus on modern-day endocrinology issues of interest to students. Topics include anatomy and physiology of hormones and glands, hormone actions from molecular to whole organism levels, biorhythms, reproduction and development, comparison of endocrine systems among animal classes, hormones in disease and medicine, eco-toxicological effects of hormones, and methods used to study endocrinology. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab per week
3 hours credit
BIO-4050 Medical Biology
This course extends principles of biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology in the context of human diseases and treatment. Using a case-study and discussion format, the course explores advanced studies in biochemical pathways in humans, molecular regulation of biochemistry, human diseases related to altered biochemical pathways, and pharmacology. 3 hours lectures per week.
3 hours credit
BIO-4110 Principles of Wildlife Biology
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020, Biology 2040, and Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4110L
3 hours credit
BIO-4130 Conservation Genetics
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 4130 Lab Section; Biology 2220 and Biology 2230. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220
3 hours credit
BIO-4150 Wildlife Health
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies. Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Biology 1310, and Biology 2220; Biology 4150L
3 hours credit
BIO-4210 Design and Analysis of Biological Study
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods. Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week
PREREQUISITE: Statistics 1210 and Biology 3310 or permission of the instructor; Biology 4210L
3 hours credit
BIO-4350 The Biology of Sex
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230; Biology 3350 and Biology 3820; Bio-4350T
3 hours credit
BIO-4400 Senior Undergraduate Research Project
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.) Restriction: Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
3 hours credit
BIO-4410 Directed Studies
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies). Three semester hours of credit
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing and 12 credit hours in the Department of Biology
3 hours credit
BIO-4420 Special Topics in Biology
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. Three semester hours of credit. Restriction: Student must have third or fourth year standing in Biology
PREREQUISITE: Must completed Biology 3260 and Chemistry 3530
3 hours credit
BIO-4440 Investigative Plant Anatomy
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020
3 hours credit
BIO-4520 Biogeography and Macroecology
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and 3140. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4520L
3 hours credit
BIO-4540 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4540L
3 hours credit
BIO-4620 Watershed Ecology
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or equivalent; Biology 4620L
3 hours credit
BIO-4650 Marine Community Ecology
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 and Biology 3910 or permission of instructor. For students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program: Biology 1310 and Biology 2220; Biology 4650L
3 hours credit
BIO-4710 Molecular Biotechnology
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230
3 hours credit
BIO-4720 Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. Note: Credit is not given for both Biology 4720 and HB 8720.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 and Biology 2210; Biology 4720L
3 hours credit
BIO-4750 Basic and Clinical Immunology
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. Three hours lecture a week
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
3 hours credit
BIO-4850 Environmental Toxicology
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 1110 and Chemistry 1120; Biology 4850L; Combined Average of 60% in Biology 1310 and 1320
3 hours credit
BIO-4900 Advanced Research and Thesis
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology.
6 hours credit
BIO-4901 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part I
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours program in Biology. NOTE: To receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be completed consecutively in one academic year.
6 hours credit
BIO-4902 Advanced Research and Thesis - Part II
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. Restriction: Student must be accepted to the Honours Program in Biology. NOTE: to receive credit for this course, Biology 4901 and Biology 4902 must be taken consecutively in one academic year.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 49001
6 hours credit
BIO-4910 Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum
This course provides practical experience and leadership in an area of wildlife conservation or environmental management. Students work in teams with an environmental organization on a specific project or task for 6 weeks, compile research, and present their findings in a written report and oral presentation. Three hours lecture or seminar a week. Semester hours of credit: 3
PREREQUISITE: Biology 331. Biology majors in the Environmental Biology specialization may take this course with permission of the Coordinator of the BWC program or the Chair of Biology
3 hours credit
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