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"To study biology is to study life."

Biology

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301

The Biology Department at UPEI has a strong tradition of helping people realize their potential through deep consideration of the biological world. A scientific understanding of the plants and animals is, in many ways, its own reward. But it is also a pathway to a large number of exciting and fulfilling career opportunities. A biology program is a common route toward the health professions (human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, etc.), for which we offer strong pre-professional programs. It can also lead to careers in environmental analysis, biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics, and many other things. Biology graduates also often establish other sorts of careers (lawyer, business professional) for which the knowledge of biology can be a strong personal and professional asset.

The strength of our educational programs derive from the strength of our scholarly activity and research. Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Atlantic Innovation Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Prince Edward Island Health Research Institute, among others. Our faculty have research programs in neurobiology, arctic insect ecology, cancer cell biology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, heart and stroke physiology, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Dr. Marva Sweeney-Nixon
UPEI Department of Biology
Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301

The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 440.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 490: Advanced Research and Thesis.

Course Requirements of the Honours Program

Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program for the first three years, with the addition of two other Biology electives (taken from any stream, though students specializing in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology streams may have to choose electives in those areas) and Biology 490.  These would normally be completed in the student’s fourth year.

Fourth Year: Honours Biology

  • *Two Biology electives at 400 level (6 semester hours); (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
  • *Two additional Biology electives at the 200 level or above (6 semester hours)
  • Biology 490 (Advanced Research and Thesis) (12 semester hours)
  • Electives (6 semester hours)

* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability.  Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student’s third year.

PERFORMANCE

To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree.  Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

 

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. The Life Sciences specialization will focus on cell & molecular biology as well as the biomedical sciences, and may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate opportunities related to the health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization will focus on the interaction of plants and animals with the environment and may be selected by students interested in careers or graduate studies related to conservation, wildlife biology or ecology. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Biology.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM 

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 221, 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 326 or 382 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives that fit the following criteria: (18 hours credit)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level
      • four must have a lab component  
        Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the "ALL SPECIALIZATIONS" section of the Specializations tab (required courses from other departments)”  

Total: 78 credit hours

Specializations

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

Check the Specializations tab for course structures of all biology major specializations.

 

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301

Minor in Biology

To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses. The requirements for a minor in Biology are:

Biology 131-132 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 200 level or above (15 semester hours)

Total Semester Hours = 21

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 221 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 326 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 200 level that fit the following criteria (18 credit hours)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level and be from Life Sciences
      • four must have a lab component  - Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
      • at least four must be selected from the Life Sciences Specialization list
      • at least 2 must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the section “All Specializations (required courses from other departments)” (78 hours credit) 

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION            

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 382 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives  at or above the 200 level that fit the following criteria (18 hours credit)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level and from the Environmental Biology list
      • four must have a lab component - Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
      • at least four must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
      • at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the section “All Specializations (required courses from other departments)” (78 hours credit)
ALL SPECIALIZATIONS (required courses from other departments)
  • One of UPEI 101, 102, or 103 (3 hours credit)
  • Chemistry:
    • Chemistry 111 and 112 (6 hours credit)
    • Chemistry 241-242 or Chemistry 243 (3 or 6 hours credit) (Note: credit will not be given for both Chemistry 243 and Chemistry 241 or 242)
    • Chemistry 353 is required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 353 or 202 for Environmental Biology (3 hours credit)
  • Physics:
    • Physics 121 (or 111) and Physics 122 (or 112) (6 hours credit)
  • Mathematics and Statistics:
    • Math 112 or Math 151/152 (3 or 6 hours credit)
    • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
    • Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 151-152 is required: therefore Mathematics 151-152 may be taken in place of Mathematics 112 but the statistics requirement of Mathematics 221 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 151 or 152.
  • Other electives (45, 48 or 51 hours credit)
  • The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses. 

SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

ALL STREAMS

First Year      

  • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 111-112 (6 hours credit)
  • Mathematics 112 or 151-152 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Physics 121 (or 111) and Physics 122 (or 112)  (6 hours credit)
  • One of UPEI 101, 102, or 103 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (3 or 6 hours credit)

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Two of Biology 221, 222, 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 326 or 382 and 331 (6 hours credit)
  • *Four Biology electives from any of the three lists (200 level or above) (12 credit hours)
  • Chemistry 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives at 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Biology 221 and 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 326 and 331 (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology electives from the Life Sciences list (200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology “alternate” electives (from the Environmental or General Biology lists, 200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives from Life Sciences list at the 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Biology 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 331 and 382 (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology electives from the Environmental (6 hours credit)
  • Biology list (200 level or above)
  • *Two Biology “alternate” electives (from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists, 200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 202 or 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives from the Environmental Biology list at 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

* in all streams, at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory or field component. The list of electives that can count toward each stream is given in the table provided below. Biology 440 may not be used to meet this requirement for Biology courses at the 400 level.

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the “General Biology” section may be used as “alternate electives” in any stream
  • Certain Biology 441 (Directed studies) or 442 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one stream or the other with prior permission of the Chair.
  • Courses that are required components for one stream or the other (e.g. Biology 221 and 326 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 222 and 382 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as “alternate” electives for the other specialization. Bio 202, 204 and 206 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Life Sciences Specialization
(includes health and biosciences courses):

  • *Biology 304—Vertebrate Zoology
  • Biology 322—Bioinformatics
  • *Biology 323—Genetics II
  • *Biology 324—Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
  • *Biology 353—Human Anatomy and Histology
  • Biology 375—Medical Microbiology
  • *Biology 401—Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • *Biology 402—Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
  • *Biology 403—Developmental Biology
  • *Biology 444—Investigative Plant Anatomy
  • Biology 471—Molecular Biotechnology
  • *Biology 472—Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
  • Biology 475—Basic and Clinical Immunology

Environmental Biology Specialization

  • *Biology 304—Vertebrate Zoology
  • *Biology 314—Plant Community Ecology
  • *Biology 327—Field Coastal Ecology
  • *Biology 335—Animal Behaviour
  • *Biology 351—Ornithology
  • *Biology 361—Biology of Fishes
  • *Biology 366—Plant-Animal Interactions
  • *Biology 371—Life of Mammals
  • *Biology 391—Marine Biology
  • *Biology 411—Wildlife Biology
  • *Biology 413—Conservation Genetics
  • *Biology 452—Biogeography and Macroecology
  • *Biology 454—Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
  • *Biology 462—Watershed Ecology
  • *Biology 465—Marine Community Ecology
  • *Biology 485—Environmental Toxicology

General Biology Courses
(can be used as “alternate” stream courses)

  • *Biology 202—Botany
  • *Biology 204—Zoology
  • *Biology 206—Microbiology
  • *Biology 311—Plants and People
  • Biology 312—History of Biology
  • *Biology 421—Design and Analysis of Biological Studies
  • Biology 435—Biology of Sex

*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk.

Want more information about Biology? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!

Careers:
  • Laboratory Technician
  • Human Medicine
  • Conservation Officer
The Department of Biology is located in the Duffy Science Centre.
(902) 566-0301
  • J. Charles Cheverie, Professor Emeritus
  • Louis A. Hanic, Professor Emeritus
  • Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Associate Professor, Chair
  • Donna J. Giberson, Professor,
  • Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
  • Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
  • Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
  • Robert Hurta, Associate Professor
  • James R. Kemp, Associate Professor
  • Pedro Quijon, Associate Professor
  • Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
  • Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor
  • Tracy Doucette, Assistant Professor
  • H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
  • Karen Samis, Assistant Professor
  • Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
  • Adam Fenech, Adjunct Professor
  • Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
  • Natacha Hogan, Adjunct Professor
  • Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
  • David McCorquodale, Adjunct Professor
  • Andre-St-Hillaire, Adjunct Professor
Overview

The Biology Department at UPEI has a strong tradition of helping people realize their potential through deep consideration of the biological world. A scientific understanding of the plants and animals is, in many ways, its own reward. But it is also a pathway to a large number of exciting and fulfilling career opportunities. A biology program is a common route toward the health professions (human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, etc.), for which we offer strong pre-professional programs. It can also lead to careers in environmental analysis, biotechnology, laboratory diagnostics, and many other things. Biology graduates also often establish other sorts of careers (lawyer, business professional) for which the knowledge of biology can be a strong personal and professional asset.

The strength of our educational programs derive from the strength of our scholarly activity and research. Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Atlantic Innovation Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Prince Edward Island Health Research Institute, among others. Our faculty have research programs in neurobiology, arctic insect ecology, cancer cell biology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, heart and stroke physiology, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

UPEI Department of Biology
Dr. Marva Sweeney-Nixon
Honours

The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 440.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 490: Advanced Research and Thesis.

Course Requirements of the Honours Program

Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program for the first three years, with the addition of two other Biology electives (taken from any stream, though students specializing in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology streams may have to choose electives in those areas) and Biology 490.  These would normally be completed in the student’s fourth year.

Fourth Year: Honours Biology

  • *Two Biology electives at 400 level (6 semester hours); (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
  • *Two additional Biology electives at the 200 level or above (6 semester hours)
  • Biology 490 (Advanced Research and Thesis) (12 semester hours)
  • Electives (6 semester hours)

* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability.  Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student’s third year.

PERFORMANCE

To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree.  Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

 

Major

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. The Life Sciences specialization will focus on cell & molecular biology as well as the biomedical sciences, and may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate opportunities related to the health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization will focus on the interaction of plants and animals with the environment and may be selected by students interested in careers or graduate studies related to conservation, wildlife biology or ecology. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Biology.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM 

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 221, 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 326 or 382 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives that fit the following criteria: (18 hours credit)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level
      • four must have a lab component  
        Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the "ALL SPECIALIZATIONS" section of the Specializations tab (required courses from other departments)”  

Total: 78 credit hours

Specializations

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

Check the Specializations tab for course structures of all biology major specializations.

 

Minor

Minor in Biology

To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses. The requirements for a minor in Biology are:

Biology 131-132 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 200 level or above (15 semester hours)

Total Semester Hours = 21

Specializations

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 221 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 326 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 200 level that fit the following criteria (18 credit hours)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level and be from Life Sciences
      • four must have a lab component  - Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
      • at least four must be selected from the Life Sciences Specialization list
      • at least 2 must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the section “All Specializations (required courses from other departments)” (78 hours credit) 

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION            

  • Eight Core Biology Courses
    • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
    • Two of Biology 202, 204 and 206 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
    • Biology 331 (3 hours credit)
    • Biology 382 (3 hours credit)
    • at least six additional Biology electives  at or above the 200 level that fit the following criteria (18 hours credit)
      • at least two must be at the 400 level and from the Environmental Biology list
      • four must have a lab component - Note:  Your 8 core courses with labs DO NOT count for this requirement, ONLY additional electives. (e.g. if you take 202, 204 and 206, two will count as core and one can count as an elective with a lab).
      • at least four must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
      • at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists
    • Required courses in other departments, and electives as listed in the section “All Specializations (required courses from other departments)” (78 hours credit)
ALL SPECIALIZATIONS (required courses from other departments)
  • One of UPEI 101, 102, or 103 (3 hours credit)
  • Chemistry:
    • Chemistry 111 and 112 (6 hours credit)
    • Chemistry 241-242 or Chemistry 243 (3 or 6 hours credit) (Note: credit will not be given for both Chemistry 243 and Chemistry 241 or 242)
    • Chemistry 353 is required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 353 or 202 for Environmental Biology (3 hours credit)
  • Physics:
    • Physics 121 (or 111) and Physics 122 (or 112) (6 hours credit)
  • Mathematics and Statistics:
    • Math 112 or Math 151/152 (3 or 6 hours credit)
    • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
    • Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 151-152 is required: therefore Mathematics 151-152 may be taken in place of Mathematics 112 but the statistics requirement of Mathematics 221 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 151 or 152.
  • Other electives (45, 48 or 51 hours credit)
  • The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses. 

SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

ALL STREAMS

First Year      

  • Biology 131-132 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 111-112 (6 hours credit)
  • Mathematics 112 or 151-152 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Physics 121 (or 111) and Physics 122 (or 112)  (6 hours credit)
  • One of UPEI 101, 102, or 103 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (3 or 6 hours credit)

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Two of Biology 221, 222, 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 326 or 382 and 331 (6 hours credit)
  • *Four Biology electives from any of the three lists (200 level or above) (12 credit hours)
  • Chemistry 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives at 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Biology 221 and 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 326 and 331 (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology electives from the Life Sciences list (200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology “alternate” electives (from the Environmental or General Biology lists, 200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives from Life Sciences list at the 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Second Year

  • Two of Biology 202, 204, 206 (6 hours credit)
  • Biology 222 and 223 (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 241-242 or 243 (3 or 6 hours credit)
  • Electives (12 or 15 hours credit)

Third Year

  • Biology 331 and 382 (6 hours credit)
  • *Two Biology electives from the Environmental (6 hours credit)
  • Biology list (200 level or above)
  • *Two Biology “alternate” electives (from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists, 200 level or above) (6 hours credit)
  • Chemistry 202 or 353 (3 hours credit)
  • Math 221 (3 hours credit)
  • Electives (6 hours credit)

Fourth Year

  • * Two Biology electives from the Environmental Biology list at 400 level (6 hours credit)
  • Electives (24 hours credit)

* in all streams, at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory or field component. The list of electives that can count toward each stream is given in the table provided below. Biology 440 may not be used to meet this requirement for Biology courses at the 400 level.

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the “General Biology” section may be used as “alternate electives” in any stream
  • Certain Biology 441 (Directed studies) or 442 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one stream or the other with prior permission of the Chair.
  • Courses that are required components for one stream or the other (e.g. Biology 221 and 326 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 222 and 382 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as “alternate” electives for the other specialization. Bio 202, 204 and 206 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Life Sciences Specialization
(includes health and biosciences courses):

  • *Biology 304—Vertebrate Zoology
  • Biology 322—Bioinformatics
  • *Biology 323—Genetics II
  • *Biology 324—Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
  • *Biology 353—Human Anatomy and Histology
  • Biology 375—Medical Microbiology
  • *Biology 401—Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • *Biology 402—Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
  • *Biology 403—Developmental Biology
  • *Biology 444—Investigative Plant Anatomy
  • Biology 471—Molecular Biotechnology
  • *Biology 472—Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
  • Biology 475—Basic and Clinical Immunology

Environmental Biology Specialization

  • *Biology 304—Vertebrate Zoology
  • *Biology 314—Plant Community Ecology
  • *Biology 327—Field Coastal Ecology
  • *Biology 335—Animal Behaviour
  • *Biology 351—Ornithology
  • *Biology 361—Biology of Fishes
  • *Biology 366—Plant-Animal Interactions
  • *Biology 371—Life of Mammals
  • *Biology 391—Marine Biology
  • *Biology 411—Wildlife Biology
  • *Biology 413—Conservation Genetics
  • *Biology 452—Biogeography and Macroecology
  • *Biology 454—Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
  • *Biology 462—Watershed Ecology
  • *Biology 465—Marine Community Ecology
  • *Biology 485—Environmental Toxicology

General Biology Courses
(can be used as “alternate” stream courses)

  • *Biology 202—Botany
  • *Biology 204—Zoology
  • *Biology 206—Microbiology
  • *Biology 311—Plants and People
  • Biology 312—History of Biology
  • *Biology 421—Design and Analysis of Biological Studies
  • Biology 435—Biology of Sex

*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk.

Faculty
  • J. Charles Cheverie, Professor Emeritus
  • Louis A. Hanic, Professor Emeritus
  • Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Associate Professor, Chair
  • Donna J. Giberson, Professor,
  • Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
  • Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
  • Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
  • Robert Hurta, Associate Professor
  • James R. Kemp, Associate Professor
  • Pedro Quijon, Associate Professor
  • Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
  • Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor
  • Tracy Doucette, Assistant Professor
  • H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
  • Karen Samis, Assistant Professor
  • Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
  • Adam Fenech, Adjunct Professor
  • Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
  • Natacha Hogan, Adjunct Professor
  • Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
  • David McCorquodale, Adjunct Professor
  • Andre-St-Hillaire, Adjunct Professor
Careers: 
Laboratory Technician
Human Medicine
Conservation Officer
Environmental Activist
Veterinary Medicine
Course Level: 
100 Level
Courses: 

001 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 131 and/or 132, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

101 CURRENT ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically.
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

102 HUMAN BIOLOGY
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body. Course topics will include discussions on human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, human development, genetic disorders, integumentary, musculoskeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and nervous system design and function.
Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory a week

121 HUMAN ANATOMY
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing and Kinesiology programs
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

122 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing, Kinesiology, Foods and Nutrition, and Family Science programs
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

123 ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This lecture-only course deals with the functioning of the human body and is designed for students applying to post-graduate health science degrees where a prerequisite human physiology course is required.  The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to Science majors in third and fourth year of study with permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week
NOTES: Students will not get credit for both BIO 122 and BIO 123

*131 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*132 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMS
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 131 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

Course Level: 
200 Level
Courses: 

*202 BOTANY
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*204 ZOOLOGY
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*206 MICROBIOLOGY
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 200 level.

221 CELL BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

*222 ECOLOGY
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

223 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in the context of the molecular biology of the gene, with attention to factors affecting gene expression. Topics covered are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

251 FUNDAMENTALS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students entering into the articulated Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program with an understanding of concepts and processes in Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Ecology that are necessary for success in courses required in subsequent terms. Material will be covered using lectures, tutorials, discussions, and demonstrations. This course must be taken in the first semester of the program, and satisfies the prerequisites for required biology courses.
Three hours lectures, two hours tutorials per week.
Restricted to students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program.

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

Course Level: 
300 Level
Courses: 

*304 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 204 or completion of Bio 131and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 300 level.

*311 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

312 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, or departmental permission
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

*314 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

*322 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
(See Computer Science 322)

*323 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*324 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 204, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 or completion of Bio 131and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*326 INTRODUCTORY PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS AND ORGANISMS
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 221 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 200 level
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*327 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

*331 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures and assignments focus on the principles of study design; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data; and the preparation of scientific papers and reports. Students critically evaluate papers in their areas of interest, and gain experience in presenting scientific information to their peers (both orally and as scientific posters).
PREREQUISITES: Biology 131 and 132, and 6 semester-hours of core Biology courses or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
NOTE: There may be opportunities for joint projects between this course and other senior Biology lab courses to directly apply writing and researching techniques from Biology 331. Students are therefore strongly encouraged to take another lab-based biology course concurrently with Biology 331.

*335 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*351 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

*353 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers human anatomy at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in for health-related disciplines.  While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures will focus on gross human anatomy while laboratories will emphasize the structure of tissues (histology). Beginning with the integument, the course progresses through the various organ systems including skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*361 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204, and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week

*371 LIFE OF MAMMALS
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

375 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*382  EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or Biology 223 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*391 MARINE BIOLOGY
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202 and 204 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

Course Level: 
400 Level
Courses: 

*401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
Cross-listed with Nursing (cf. Nursing 601)
PREREQUISITES: Biology 326 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week
NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 401 and Nursing 601

*402 COMPARATIVE & ENVIRONMENTAL VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 326 or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*403 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 221
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*411 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 and 204 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*413 CONSERVATION GENETICS
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity.  Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper.  Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 223  (Biology 382, Biology 323 are recommended co-requisites, but are not essential) or Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

415 WILDLIFE HEALTH
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites.
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course)
Three semester hours of credit

*421 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITE: Math 221 and Biology 331 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

435 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 (other useful courses are Biology 335 and Biology 382) or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly

*440 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work.
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.)

441 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies)
Three semester hours of credit

442 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science.
Three semester hours of credit

*444 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*452 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY 
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and 314 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*454 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*462 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island.  Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or equivalent or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*465 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus
is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program) and Biology 391, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

471 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223
Three hours lecture a week

* 472 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 and Biology 221
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory a week

475 BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*485 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program; and Chemistry 111-112
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student’s graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

Calendar Courses

001 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 131 and/or 132, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

101 CURRENT ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically.
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

102 HUMAN BIOLOGY
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body. Course topics will include discussions on human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, human development, genetic disorders, integumentary, musculoskeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and nervous system design and function.
Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory a week

121 HUMAN ANATOMY
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing and Kinesiology programs
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

122 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing, Kinesiology, Foods and Nutrition, and Family Science programs
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

123 ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This lecture-only course deals with the functioning of the human body and is designed for students applying to post-graduate health science degrees where a prerequisite human physiology course is required.  The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to Science majors in third and fourth year of study with permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week
NOTES: Students will not get credit for both BIO 122 and BIO 123

*131 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Grade XI or XII Biology, or UPEI Biology 001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*132 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMS
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 131 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

*202 BOTANY
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*204 ZOOLOGY
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*206 MICROBIOLOGY
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 200 level.

221 CELL BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

*222 ECOLOGY
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

223 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in the context of the molecular biology of the gene, with attention to factors affecting gene expression. Topics covered are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

251 FUNDAMENTALS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students entering into the articulated Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program with an understanding of concepts and processes in Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Ecology that are necessary for success in courses required in subsequent terms. Material will be covered using lectures, tutorials, discussions, and demonstrations. This course must be taken in the first semester of the program, and satisfies the prerequisites for required biology courses.
Three hours lectures, two hours tutorials per week.
Restricted to students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program.

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

*304 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 204 or completion of Bio 131and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 300 level.

*311 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

312 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, or departmental permission
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

*314 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

*322 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
(See Computer Science 322)

*323 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*324 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 204, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 or completion of Bio 131and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*326 INTRODUCTORY PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS AND ORGANISMS
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 221 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 200 level
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*327 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

*331 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures and assignments focus on the principles of study design; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data; and the preparation of scientific papers and reports. Students critically evaluate papers in their areas of interest, and gain experience in presenting scientific information to their peers (both orally and as scientific posters).
PREREQUISITES: Biology 131 and 132, and 6 semester-hours of core Biology courses or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
NOTE: There may be opportunities for joint projects between this course and other senior Biology lab courses to directly apply writing and researching techniques from Biology 331. Students are therefore strongly encouraged to take another lab-based biology course concurrently with Biology 331.

*335 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*351 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

*353 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers human anatomy at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in for health-related disciplines.  While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures will focus on gross human anatomy while laboratories will emphasize the structure of tissues (histology). Beginning with the integument, the course progresses through the various organ systems including skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*361 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204, and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week

*371 LIFE OF MAMMALS
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

375 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*382  EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or Biology 223 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*391 MARINE BIOLOGY
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202 and 204 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

*401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
Cross-listed with Nursing (cf. Nursing 601)
PREREQUISITES: Biology 326 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week
NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 401 and Nursing 601

*402 COMPARATIVE & ENVIRONMENTAL VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 326 or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*403 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 221
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*411 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 and 204 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*413 CONSERVATION GENETICS
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity.  Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper.  Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 223  (Biology 382, Biology 323 are recommended co-requisites, but are not essential) or Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

415 WILDLIFE HEALTH
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites.
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course)
Three semester hours of credit

*421 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITE: Math 221 and Biology 331 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

435 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 (other useful courses are Biology 335 and Biology 382) or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly

*440 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work.
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.)

441 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies)
Three semester hours of credit

442 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science.
Three semester hours of credit

*444 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*452 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY 
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and 314 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*454 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*462 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island.  Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or equivalent or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*465 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus
is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or completion of Biology 131 and 251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program) and Biology 391, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

471 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223
Three hours lecture a week

* 472 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 and Biology 221
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory a week

475 BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*485 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or completion of Biology 131-251 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program; and Chemistry 111-112
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student’s graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)