Practical, theoretical, and analytical wildlife studies.

Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation

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First Name:
Last Name:
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Careers:
  • Conservation Officer
  • Lab Technician
  • Ecologist
  • Watershed Coordinator
  • Activist
The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program is located in the Duffy Science Centre

The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) colleges with courses from the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g., General Chemistry) and senior analytical environmental science courses (e.g., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program. Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college program with a minimum of a 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program.

Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, among others and have research programs in arctic insect ecology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1. Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives. Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have already been vaccinated for Rabies, or obtain a Rabies vaccination during the first year of their program. Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Want more information about Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Conservation Officer
  • Lab Technician
  • Ecologist
  • Watershed Coordinator
  • Activist
The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program is located in the Duffy Science Centre

This program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) programs, and by the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g. General Chemistry) as well as senior analytical courses in the environmental sciences at the university level (e.g. Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program.

Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college with a minimum 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program. Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1st.  Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives.  Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have been immunized for the prevention of Rabies, or obtain a rabies vaccination during the first year of their program.  Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Want more information about Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Conservation Officer
  • Lab Technician
  • Ecologist
  • Watershed Coordinator
  • Activist
The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program is located in the Duffy Science Centre

9 Core Biology courses:

  • Biology 1310—Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Biology 2220—Ecology
  • Biology 3310—Research Methods and Communications in Biology
  • Biology 3820—Evolutionary Biology
  • Biology 3910—Marine Biology OR Biology 4620—Watershed Ecology
  • Biology 4130—Conservation Genetics
  • Biology 4150—Wildlife Health
  • Biology 4520—Biogeography and Macroecology OR Biology 4540—Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
  • Biology 4910—Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum 

7 Core Courses in Other Departments:

  • Environmental Studies 1010—Introduction to Environmental Studies
  • Environmental Studies 2120—Earth’s Physical Environment
  • Environmental Studies 4310—Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Economics 1010—Introductory Microeconomics
  • Economics 2110—Introduction to Resource Economics
  • Economics 2150—Environmental Economics
  • UPEI 1010 or UPEI 1020 or UPEI 1030

Students complete the degree requirements by choosing two science and two nonscience electives. 

 

Want more information about Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Conservation Officer
  • Lab Technician
  • Ecologist
  • Watershed Coordinator
  • Activist
The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program is located in the Duffy Science Centre

Marina Silva-Opps
msilva@upei.ca
(902) 566-0325
Duffy Science Centre, 441

Overview

The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) colleges with courses from the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g., General Chemistry) and senior analytical environmental science courses (e.g., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program. Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college program with a minimum of a 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program.

Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, among others and have research programs in arctic insect ecology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1. Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives. Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have already been vaccinated for Rabies, or obtain a Rabies vaccination during the first year of their program. Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Admission Requirements

This program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) programs, and by the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g. General Chemistry) as well as senior analytical courses in the environmental sciences at the university level (e.g. Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program.

Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college with a minimum 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program. Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1st.  Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives.  Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have been immunized for the prevention of Rabies, or obtain a rabies vaccination during the first year of their program.  Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Course Structure

9 Core Biology courses:

  • Biology 1310—Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Biology 2220—Ecology
  • Biology 3310—Research Methods and Communications in Biology
  • Biology 3820—Evolutionary Biology
  • Biology 3910—Marine Biology OR Biology 4620—Watershed Ecology
  • Biology 4130—Conservation Genetics
  • Biology 4150—Wildlife Health
  • Biology 4520—Biogeography and Macroecology OR Biology 4540—Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
  • Biology 4910—Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum 

7 Core Courses in Other Departments:

  • Environmental Studies 1010—Introduction to Environmental Studies
  • Environmental Studies 2120—Earth’s Physical Environment
  • Environmental Studies 4310—Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Economics 1010—Introductory Microeconomics
  • Economics 2110—Introduction to Resource Economics
  • Economics 2150—Environmental Economics
  • UPEI 1010 or UPEI 1020 or UPEI 1030

Students complete the degree requirements by choosing two science and two nonscience electives. 

 

Contact

Marina Silva-Opps
msilva@upei.ca
(902) 566-0325
Duffy Science Centre, 441

Overview

The Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) colleges with courses from the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g., General Chemistry) and senior analytical environmental science courses (e.g., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program. Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college program with a minimum of a 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program.

Our faculty hold grants from the Natural Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canada Foundation for Innovation, among others and have research programs in arctic insect ecology, watershed ecology, pollination biology, coastal habitat ecology, animal habitat fragmentation, aquatic toxicology, plant ecological genetics, among others.

Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1. Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives. Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have already been vaccinated for Rabies, or obtain a Rabies vaccination during the first year of their program. Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Admission Requirements

This program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) programs, and by the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g. General Chemistry) as well as senior analytical courses in the environmental sciences at the university level (e.g. Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program.

Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college with a minimum 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program. Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1st.  Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives.  Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have been immunized for the prevention of Rabies, or obtain a rabies vaccination during the first year of their program.  Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

 

Course Structure

9 Core Biology courses:

  • Biology 1310—Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Biology 2220—Ecology
  • Biology 3310—Research Methods and Communications in Biology
  • Biology 3820—Evolutionary Biology
  • Biology 3910—Marine Biology OR Biology 4620—Watershed Ecology
  • Biology 4130—Conservation Genetics
  • Biology 4150—Wildlife Health
  • Biology 4520—Biogeography and Macroecology OR Biology 4540—Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
  • Biology 4910—Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum 

7 Core Courses in Other Departments:

  • Environmental Studies 1010—Introduction to Environmental Studies
  • Environmental Studies 2120—Earth’s Physical Environment
  • Environmental Studies 4310—Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Economics 1010—Introductory Microeconomics
  • Economics 2110—Introduction to Resource Economics
  • Economics 2150—Environmental Economics
  • UPEI 1010 or UPEI 1020 or UPEI 1030

Students complete the degree requirements by choosing two science and two nonscience electives. 

 

Contact

Marina Silva-Opps
msilva@upei.ca
(902) 566-0325
Duffy Science Centre, 441

Want more information about Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Award-winning Faculty: 
4
Careers: 
Conservation Officer
Lab Technician
Ecologist
Watershed Coordinator
Activist
Course Level: 
100 Level
Courses: 

BIO 001 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY 
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 131 and/or 132, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

BIO 101 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. 
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

BIO 102 HUMAN BIOLOGY 
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body. Course topics will include discussions on human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, human development, genetic disorders, integumentary, musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and nervous system design and function.
Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory a week.

BIO 121 HUMAN ANATOMY 
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body and is designed for students in the Nursing program. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 122 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 
This course deals with the functioning of the human body, and is designed for students in the Nursing program and the Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program or Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 131 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology,with emphasis on the processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life.  Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Grade XI or XII Biology, Biology 001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 132 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMS 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. 
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 131, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

Course Level: 
200 Level
Courses: 

BIO 202 PLANT DIVERSITY 
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 204 ANIMAL DIVERSITY 
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 206 MICROBIAL DIVERSITY 
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

BIO 209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 200 level.

BIO 221 CELL BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

BIO 222 GENERAL ECOLOGY 
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 223 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in the context of the molecular biology of the gene, with attention to factors affecting gene expression. Topics covered are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. 

BIO 251 FUNDAMENTALS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students entering into the articulated Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program with an understanding of concepts and processes in Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Ecology that are necessary for success in courses required in subsequent terms. Material will be covered using lectures, tutorials, discussions, and demonstrations. This course must be taken in the first semester of the program, and satisfies the prerequisites for required biology courses.
Three hours lectures per week.  Two hours tutorials per week.
Restricted to students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program.

Course Level: 
300 Level
Courses: 

BIO 304 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 300 level.

BIO 311 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 312 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or departmental permission 
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

BIO 314 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

BIO 322 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
See Computer Science 322

BIO 323 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 324 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 204, providing stu dents with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 326 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardio-pulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 221 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 200 level
Three hours lecture, Three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 326 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 327 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island.  Using a hands-on approach students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat.  Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory.  These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES:  Biology 202, 204 and 222 
Four hours lecture and four hours lab/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

BIO 331 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY 
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures and assignments focus on the principles of study design; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data; and the preparation of scientific papers and reports. Students critically evaluate papers in their areas of interest, and gain experience in presenting scientific information to their peers (both orally and as scientific posters).
PREREQUISITES: Biology 131 and 132, and 6 semester-hours of core Biology courses
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
NOTE: For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 331 be taken concurrently with Biology 326 or Biology 382

BIO 335 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 351 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week 
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

BIO 353 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers human anatomy at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in for health-related disciplines. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures will focus on gross human anatomy while laboratories will emphasize the structure of tissues (histology). Beginning with the integument, the course progresses through the various organ systems including skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
PREREQUISITE:  A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 361 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region.  Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS 
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204, and 222 
Three hours lecture per week, three hours laboratory every other week

BIO 371 MAMMALOGY 
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 375 MICROBIAL DISEASES AND PATHOGENESIS 
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture per week

BIO 382  EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 382 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 391 MARINE BIOLOGY 
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202 and 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

Course Level: 
400 Level
Courses: 

BIO 401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 326 or students enrolled in a Master of Nursing or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 402 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 326 or permission of instructor. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week 

BIO 403 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 221 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 411 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 and 204

BIO 413 CONSERVATION GENETICS 
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 223 (Biology 382, Biology 323 are recommended co-requisites, but are not essential)
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 421 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITES: Math 221 and Biology 331 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

BIO 435 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX 
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (assexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 (other useful courses are Bio 335 and Bio 382)
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly.

BIO 440 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT 
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. 
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit. Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.

BIO 441 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY 
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies) 
Three semester hours of credit.

BIO 442 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. 
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 444 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

SCIE 444 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PLACEMENT IN THE SCIENCES
This course recognizes a student’s learning experience as a volunteer outside the traditional framework of a university course in a context or organization that closely relates to the major; equates with skills, knowledge, or perspectives currently taught in courses required for the major; involves analysis or reflection at the undergraduate level or higher. Placements will need to be approved by the department and the Dean of Science prior to the beginning of the experience. Students will be required to submit a detailed report of their activities and present their work during a public presentation.
PREREQUISITE:  Third or fourth year standing in Science
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 452 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY 
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and 314 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 454 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and managing biodiversity are also discussed. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 462 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or equivalent 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 465 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 391, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 471 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY 
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 472 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 and Biology 221
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 475 IMMUNOLOGY 
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immuno-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 485 (formerly 385) ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course will introduce the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132; Chemistry 111-112
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS 
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. 
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology.

Calendar Courses

BIO 001 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY 
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 131 and/or 132, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

BIO 101 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. 
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

BIO 102 HUMAN BIOLOGY 
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body. Course topics will include discussions on human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, human development, genetic disorders, integumentary, musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and nervous system design and function.
Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory a week.

BIO 121 HUMAN ANATOMY 
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body and is designed for students in the Nursing program. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 122 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 
This course deals with the functioning of the human body, and is designed for students in the Nursing program and the Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program or Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 131 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology,with emphasis on the processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life.  Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Grade XI or XII Biology, Biology 001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 132 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMS 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. 
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 131, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 202 PLANT DIVERSITY 
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 204 ANIMAL DIVERSITY 
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 206 MICROBIAL DIVERSITY 
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

BIO 209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 200 level.

BIO 221 CELL BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

BIO 222 GENERAL ECOLOGY 
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 223 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in the context of the molecular biology of the gene, with attention to factors affecting gene expression. Topics covered are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. 

BIO 251 FUNDAMENTALS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students entering into the articulated Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program with an understanding of concepts and processes in Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Ecology that are necessary for success in courses required in subsequent terms. Material will be covered using lectures, tutorials, discussions, and demonstrations. This course must be taken in the first semester of the program, and satisfies the prerequisites for required biology courses.
Three hours lectures per week.  Two hours tutorials per week.
Restricted to students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program.

BIO 304 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 300 level.

BIO 311 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 312 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or departmental permission 
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

BIO 314 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

BIO 322 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
See Computer Science 322

BIO 323 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 324 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 204, providing stu dents with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 326 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardio-pulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 221 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 200 level
Three hours lecture, Three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 326 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 327 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island.  Using a hands-on approach students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat.  Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory.  These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES:  Biology 202, 204 and 222 
Four hours lecture and four hours lab/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

BIO 331 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY 
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures and assignments focus on the principles of study design; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data; and the preparation of scientific papers and reports. Students critically evaluate papers in their areas of interest, and gain experience in presenting scientific information to their peers (both orally and as scientific posters).
PREREQUISITES: Biology 131 and 132, and 6 semester-hours of core Biology courses
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
NOTE: For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 331 be taken concurrently with Biology 326 or Biology 382

BIO 335 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 351 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week 
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

BIO 353 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers human anatomy at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in for health-related disciplines. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures will focus on gross human anatomy while laboratories will emphasize the structure of tissues (histology). Beginning with the integument, the course progresses through the various organ systems including skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
PREREQUISITE:  A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 361 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region.  Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS 
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204, and 222 
Three hours lecture per week, three hours laboratory every other week

BIO 371 MAMMALOGY 
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 375 MICROBIAL DISEASES AND PATHOGENESIS 
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture per week

BIO 382  EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 382 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 391 MARINE BIOLOGY 
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202 and 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 326 or students enrolled in a Master of Nursing or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 402 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 326 or permission of instructor. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week 

BIO 403 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 221 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 411 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 and 204

BIO 413 CONSERVATION GENETICS 
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 223 (Biology 382, Biology 323 are recommended co-requisites, but are not essential)
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 421 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITES: Math 221 and Biology 331 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

BIO 435 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX 
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (assexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 (other useful courses are Bio 335 and Bio 382)
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly.

BIO 440 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT 
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. 
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit. Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.

BIO 441 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY 
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies) 
Three semester hours of credit.

BIO 442 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. 
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 444 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

SCIE 444 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PLACEMENT IN THE SCIENCES
This course recognizes a student’s learning experience as a volunteer outside the traditional framework of a university course in a context or organization that closely relates to the major; equates with skills, knowledge, or perspectives currently taught in courses required for the major; involves analysis or reflection at the undergraduate level or higher. Placements will need to be approved by the department and the Dean of Science prior to the beginning of the experience. Students will be required to submit a detailed report of their activities and present their work during a public presentation.
PREREQUISITE:  Third or fourth year standing in Science
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 452 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY 
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and 314 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 454 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and managing biodiversity are also discussed. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 462 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or equivalent 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 465 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 391, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 471 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY 
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 472 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 and Biology 221
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 475 IMMUNOLOGY 
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immuno-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 485 (formerly 385) ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course will introduce the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132; Chemistry 111-112
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS 
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. 
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology.

Calendar Courses

100 Level

BIO 001 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY 
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 131 and/or 132, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

BIO 101 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically. 
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

BIO 102 HUMAN BIOLOGY 
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body. Course topics will include discussions on human sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, human development, genetic disorders, integumentary, musculo-skeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and nervous system design and function.
Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory a week.

BIO 121 HUMAN ANATOMY 
This course deals with structural levels of organization of the human body and is designed for students in the Nursing program. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 122 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 
This course deals with the functioning of the human body, and is designed for students in the Nursing program and the Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed. 
PREREQUISITE: Restricted to students in the Nursing program or Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

BIO 131 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology,with emphasis on the processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life.  Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Grade XI or XII Biology, Biology 001 or the permission of the Chair in special cases.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 132 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMS 
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques. 
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 131, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

200 Level

BIO 202 PLANT DIVERSITY 
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 204 ANIMAL DIVERSITY 
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 206 MICROBIAL DIVERSITY 
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

BIO 209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 200 level.

BIO 221 CELL BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include cellular membranes, respiration, the cytoskeleton and nucleus, cell division, intercellular interactions, the cell in its environment, differences between plant and animal cells, different cell types, and special topics in biomedical cell biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

BIO 222 GENERAL ECOLOGY 
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 223 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in the context of the molecular biology of the gene, with attention to factors affecting gene expression. Topics covered are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week. 

BIO 251 FUNDAMENTALS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students entering into the articulated Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program with an understanding of concepts and processes in Cell and Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Ecology that are necessary for success in courses required in subsequent terms. Material will be covered using lectures, tutorials, discussions, and demonstrations. This course must be taken in the first semester of the program, and satisfies the prerequisites for required biology courses.
Three hours lectures per week.  Two hours tutorials per week.
Restricted to students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program.

300 Level

BIO 304 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by Biology at the 300 level.

BIO 311 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 312 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132 or departmental permission 
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

BIO 314 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

BIO 322 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
See Computer Science 322

BIO 323 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE:  Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 324 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 204, providing stu dents with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 326 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardio-pulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 221 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 200 level
Three hours lecture, Three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 326 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 327 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd - 4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island.  Using a hands-on approach students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat.  Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory.  These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES:  Biology 202, 204 and 222 
Four hours lecture and four hours lab/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

BIO 331 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY 
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures and assignments focus on the principles of study design; analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data; and the preparation of scientific papers and reports. Students critically evaluate papers in their areas of interest, and gain experience in presenting scientific information to their peers (both orally and as scientific posters).
PREREQUISITES: Biology 131 and 132, and 6 semester-hours of core Biology courses
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week
NOTE: For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 331 be taken concurrently with Biology 326 or Biology 382

BIO 335 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 351 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats. 
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week 
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

BIO 353 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers human anatomy at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in for health-related disciplines. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures will focus on gross human anatomy while laboratories will emphasize the structure of tissues (histology). Beginning with the integument, the course progresses through the various organ systems including skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
PREREQUISITE:  A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 361 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region.  Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 366 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS 
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202, 204, and 222 
Three hours lecture per week, three hours laboratory every other week

BIO 371 MAMMALOGY 
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 375 MICROBIAL DISEASES AND PATHOGENESIS 
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture per week

BIO 382  EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 or Biology 223
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE:  For Biology majors, it is strongly recommended that Biology 382 be taken concurrently with Biology 331

BIO 391 MARINE BIOLOGY 
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of P.E.I. and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 202 and 204 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

400 Level

BIO 401 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 326 or students enrolled in a Master of Nursing or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 402 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 204 and 326 or permission of instructor. 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week 

BIO 403 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 221 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 411 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 and 204

BIO 413 CONSERVATION GENETICS 
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 223 (Biology 382, Biology 323 are recommended co-requisites, but are not essential)
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 421 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITES: Math 221 and Biology 331 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

BIO 435 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX 
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (assexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 (other useful courses are Bio 335 and Bio 382)
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly.

BIO 440 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT 
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work. 
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit. Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.

BIO 441 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY 
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies) 
Three semester hours of credit.

BIO 442 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. 
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 444 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 202 
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

SCIE 444 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PLACEMENT IN THE SCIENCES
This course recognizes a student’s learning experience as a volunteer outside the traditional framework of a university course in a context or organization that closely relates to the major; equates with skills, knowledge, or perspectives currently taught in courses required for the major; involves analysis or reflection at the undergraduate level or higher. Placements will need to be approved by the department and the Dean of Science prior to the beginning of the experience. Students will be required to submit a detailed report of their activities and present their work during a public presentation.
PREREQUISITE:  Third or fourth year standing in Science
Three semester hours of credit

BIO 452 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY 
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined. 
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and 314 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 454 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and managing biodiversity are also discussed. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 222 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 462 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 or equivalent 
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week.

BIO 465 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 222 and Biology 391, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 471 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY 
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 223 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 472 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 and Biology 221
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 475 IMMUNOLOGY 
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immuno-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer. 
PREREQUISITE: Biology 206 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. 
Three hours lecture a week

BIO 485 (formerly 385) ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course will introduce the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 131-132; Chemistry 111-112
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

BIO 490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS 
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student's graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset. 
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology.

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