Knowledge, memory, explanation, and illumination.

History

Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Educator
  • Archivist
  • Journalist
  • Contract Historian
  • Librarian
  • Writer
The department of History is located in SDU Main Building (administrative office in Main 321)

History is our collective memory. History shapes our identity, informing who we are as individuals, communities and nations. In our modern complex and diverse world, the study of history has never been more relevant. Understanding the origins and developments of institutions and ideas, tensions and conflicts, societies and civilizations improves our social awareness and provides insight into the perspectives of others, allowing us to make informed decisions about future courses of action.

Studying history provides students with a tool box of transferable skills that will serve them well in today’s evolving job market. History students are trained to be excellent researchers, tracking down information and communicating their analysis with clarity and confidence. A History degree at UPEI will hone students’ abilities to weigh and assess evidence and expert opinion, to evaluate causes and consequences, and provide them with a foundation from which to develop practical solutions to contemporary problems. Our History graduates are pursuing successful careers in heritage and conservation, law, journalism, education, medicine, social services, policy analysis, business, communications, and digital information management.

History professors at UPEI are award-winning educators and researchers with a wide variety of historical interests. Our course offerings include studies ranging from the local history of PEI to the history of global exploration; from Antiquity and the Middle Ages to the present; and themes encompassing the impact of wars and revolutions on past societies, the history of science and medicine, and the history of gender relations. Our Public History course provides students with an opportunity to gain valuable internship experience in government, heritage and cultural workplaces.

UPEI History professors work closely with individual students, mentoring them to help them achieve their goals. The History Student Society thrives at UPEI, providing history students with a supportive, socially active university community.

Welcome – we look forward to meeting you and sharing our passion for the past and its relevance for the future.

For more information about the History Program or to meet with a member of the department, our contact details can be found on the right of this page.

Edward MacDonald, Chair
UPEI Department of History
Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Educator
  • Archivist
  • Journalist
  • Contract Historian
  • Librarian
  • Writer
The department of History is located in SDU Main Building (administrative office in Main 321)

To be admitted to the honours program, the student must submit a letter of application to the Honours Co-ordinator. Applicants must be registered in, or have completed, the major program. Applications are normally submitted during the fourth or fifth semester. Decisions on admission are made by the department acting as a committee of the whole. Admissions decisions will be made on the basis of demonstrated and potential ability to carry out independent research and sustained historical analysis. Meeting the minimum entry requirements does not guarantee admission.

  • Applicants must have a minimum average of 70% in all previous University courses. Normally, the Department expects an average of at least 75% in all previous history courses.
  • In addition to the courses required for the major, honours students are required to complete History 497 and 498.
  • Each honours student must prepare a graduating honours essay under the direction of a supervisor. This essay will be evaluated by a three-person committee, one member of which will be from outside the Department.
  • The candidate must take a final oral examination on the essay.
  • Students intending to enter graduate programs should be aware that many such programs require a reading knowledge of a second language. Undergraduate courses in a second language are a useful preparation for graduate work in history.

An honours program is complete when the student completes:

  1. a total of 126 semester hours of course credits with a mini- mum overall average of 70%;
  2. a total of 48 semester hours of course credits in History (6 semester hours in addition to the minimum required for the major), with a minimum average of 75%.
Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Educator
  • Archivist
  • Journalist
  • Contract Historian
  • Librarian
  • Writer
The department of History is located in SDU Main Building (administrative office in Main 321)

Major in History

To register as a major in History, a student must complete History 101/102 and six semester hours (2 courses) at the 200 level. Students are urged to take History 201/202 in the first or second year to satisfy the second requirement. Students may take additional 200-level courses.

  • History 101/102, 201/202, 211, and 312 are compulsory for students in the major program.
  • History 101/102, 201/202, and 211 should be completed by the end of the fourth semester.
  • History 312 should be completed no later than the end of the sixth semester.

A major program is complete when a student has successfully completed a minimum of 42 hours of credit in History (14 courses) of which a minimum of 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 300 level, and 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 400 level. Majors must complete courses totalling 6 semester hours of credit at the 200-400 levels in three of the five areas of study: Europe, Britain, the USA, Canada, and Global.

Minor in History

To complete a minor in History, the student must complete History 101/102 and five other history courses (15 semester hours), including

  • one Canadian history,
  • one continental European history,
  • one course each out of two of the following three fields: British history, USA history, and Global history,
  • one other history course.
  • At least two of the student’s courses must be at the 300 level or above.

Minor in Medieval and Renaissance Studies

Visit the Medieval and Renaissance Studies minor program page

Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Educator
  • Archivist
  • Journalist
  • Contract Historian
  • Librarian
  • Writer
The department of History is located in SDU Main Building (administrative office in Main 321)

CREDITS FOR CROSS-LISTED COURSES

The Department accepts as part of its major or honours program a maximum of 12 hours (4 courses) of courses cross- credited to History from related disciplines. Of such courses, students can apply 6 hours (2 courses) taken at the 100 or 200 levels and 6 hours (2 courses) at the 300 or 400 levels. Students must have the prior approval of the Chair of History if credit is to be granted. The courses from related disciplines which may be approved for credit are the following:

Asian Studies 201 Introduction to West Asia
Asian Studies 202 Introduction to East Asia
Economics 311/312 History of Economic Thought
English 378 The Medieval Book
Fine Arts History 101/102 Art History
Religious Studies 331/332 History of Christianity

AREA COURSES

The Department offers the following “streams”—Canadian, USA, British, European, Global, and Others:

Canadian
101 Canadian History—Pre-Confederation
102 Canadian History—Post-Confederation
231 The Atlantic Region
232 The Atlantic Region
325 Canadian Social History to World War I
326 Canadian Social History since World War I
331 History of Prince Edward Island— Pre-Confederation
332 History of Prince Edward Island— Post-Confederation
352 The History of Quebec and French Canada
353 Canada and The First World War
385 Women in 19th-Century Canada
386 Women, the Law, and Civil Rights in 20th-Century Canada
415 Canada Apologizes: Studies in Historical Apologies
424 History of Canadian Nationalism and the Canadian Identity
425 Childhood in Modern Canada
426 A History of the Canadian Working Classes
489 20th-Century Prince Edward Island

USA
241 United States History—From the Colonial Period to Reconstruction
242 United States History since Reconstruction
333 Health Care and North American Society in Historical Perspective
391 The United States from 1900 through World War II
392 The United States since World War II
393 The American Mind and Imagination: From the Puritans to the Progressives
394 20th-Century American Intellectual History
395 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: A History of Immigration
396 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: African-American History
397 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: The Hispanic- American Experience
441 United States Foreign Policy from the Revolutionary Period through World War I
442 United States Foreign Policy since World War I

British
261 Britain in the Age of Revolutions: 1688-1860
262 Rule Britannia to Cool Britannia: Britain 1860-2000
310 Tudor England, 1485-1603: Creation of a Nation
362 Victorian Britain
363 Modern Irish History
472 Britain in the 20th-Century: Society, Culture and Identity
473 The Rise of Consumer Society: British Society in the 18th-Century 

European
201 European Civilization 500 BC-1648
202 European Civilization 1648 to the Present
303 Power, Culture and Consumption: the Renaissance in Italy
305 Martyrs, Marauders, Clerics and Kings: The Culture of the European Middle Ages
311 Science, Magic, Witchcraft, and the Occult in Premodern Europe
323 Russian History since 1682
341 German History since 1648
342 History of France since 1500
404 Monsters, Gold, and Glory: Travel, Trade and the Problem of Discovery in Premodern Europe
411 Europe Since Bismarck
485 The Ideas that changed Modern European History 

Global
215 Foreign Foods: Eating in the Age of Empires
222 From Magic to the Double Helix: Science and Society in Historical Perspective
321 History of Christianity to the Reformation
322 History of Christianity from the Reformation to the Present
327 Migration to Canada I
328 Migration to Canada II
371 The Atlantic World I
372 The Atlantic World II
373 The Second World War in Global Context
375 Tourism in western Society: The Travel Imperative
376 The History of Genocide
405 Crusades and Crusading
432 Britain and the Imperial Experience
434 Madness and Society
455 War and Revolution in the 20th Century World
483 The History of the Environmentalist Movement

Other
111 Discovering the Past
113 Crime and Punishment: Historical Themes
114 Plaque: Historical Themes
115 Nazi Germany: Historical Themes
116 The Devil in Western Society: Historical Themes
117 Rock and Roll From Presley to Punk: Historical Themes
211 The History Workshop: Skills and Methods in History
312 Themes and Debates in History
484 Applied Public History
491 Directed Studies
492 Directed Studies
497 Honours Tutorial in Historiography
498 Honours Graduating Essay

Normally, students who intend to major in History will choose History 101/102 as their introduction to history. These courses include an important tutorial component emphasizing introductory skills and methods of history.

200-level courses provide introductions to the histories of civilizations, regions, and countries, especially in the areas listed above. They are intended to build upon the skills acquired in first year History courses.

300-level courses provide more specialized studies in a number of areas.

400-level courses are usually seminars emphasizing discussion and research in more specialized areas.

While providing courses for students in all faculties, schools, and departments, the Department also provides a minor, major, and honours program for those who have a special interest in the study of history.

Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers:
  • Educator
  • Archivist
  • Journalist
  • Contract Historian
  • Librarian
  • Writer
The department of History is located in SDU Main Building (administrative office in Main 321)
  • Rev. Francis W.P. Bolger, Professor Emeritus
  • Andrew Robb, Professor Emeritus
  • Sharon Myers, Acting Chair, Assistant Professor
  • Susan Brown, Associate Professor
  • Ian Dowbiggin, Professor
  • Lisa Chilton, Associate Professor
  • Richard G. Kurial, Associate Professor
  • Edward MacDonald, Associate Professor
  • James Moran, Associate Professor
  • Richard Raiswell, Associate Professor
Overview

History is our collective memory. History shapes our identity, informing who we are as individuals, communities and nations. In our modern complex and diverse world, the study of history has never been more relevant. Understanding the origins and developments of institutions and ideas, tensions and conflicts, societies and civilizations improves our social awareness and provides insight into the perspectives of others, allowing us to make informed decisions about future courses of action.

Studying history provides students with a tool box of transferable skills that will serve them well in today’s evolving job market. History students are trained to be excellent researchers, tracking down information and communicating their analysis with clarity and confidence. A History degree at UPEI will hone students’ abilities to weigh and assess evidence and expert opinion, to evaluate causes and consequences, and provide them with a foundation from which to develop practical solutions to contemporary problems. Our History graduates are pursuing successful careers in heritage and conservation, law, journalism, education, medicine, social services, policy analysis, business, communications, and digital information management.

History professors at UPEI are award-winning educators and researchers with a wide variety of historical interests. Our course offerings include studies ranging from the local history of PEI to the history of global exploration; from Antiquity and the Middle Ages to the present; and themes encompassing the impact of wars and revolutions on past societies, the history of science and medicine, and the history of gender relations. Our Public History course provides students with an opportunity to gain valuable internship experience in government, heritage and cultural workplaces.

UPEI History professors work closely with individual students, mentoring them to help them achieve their goals. The History Student Society thrives at UPEI, providing history students with a supportive, socially active university community.

Welcome – we look forward to meeting you and sharing our passion for the past and its relevance for the future.

For more information about the History Program or to meet with a member of the department, our contact details can be found on the right of this page.

UPEI Department of History
Edward MacDonald, Chair
Honours

To be admitted to the honours program, the student must submit a letter of application to the Honours Co-ordinator. Applicants must be registered in, or have completed, the major program. Applications are normally submitted during the fourth or fifth semester. Decisions on admission are made by the department acting as a committee of the whole. Admissions decisions will be made on the basis of demonstrated and potential ability to carry out independent research and sustained historical analysis. Meeting the minimum entry requirements does not guarantee admission.

  • Applicants must have a minimum average of 70% in all previous University courses. Normally, the Department expects an average of at least 75% in all previous history courses.
  • In addition to the courses required for the major, honours students are required to complete History 497 and 498.
  • Each honours student must prepare a graduating honours essay under the direction of a supervisor. This essay will be evaluated by a three-person committee, one member of which will be from outside the Department.
  • The candidate must take a final oral examination on the essay.
  • Students intending to enter graduate programs should be aware that many such programs require a reading knowledge of a second language. Undergraduate courses in a second language are a useful preparation for graduate work in history.

An honours program is complete when the student completes:

  1. a total of 126 semester hours of course credits with a mini- mum overall average of 70%;
  2. a total of 48 semester hours of course credits in History (6 semester hours in addition to the minimum required for the major), with a minimum average of 75%.
Major/Minors

Major in History

To register as a major in History, a student must complete History 101/102 and six semester hours (2 courses) at the 200 level. Students are urged to take History 201/202 in the first or second year to satisfy the second requirement. Students may take additional 200-level courses.

  • History 101/102, 201/202, 211, and 312 are compulsory for students in the major program.
  • History 101/102, 201/202, and 211 should be completed by the end of the fourth semester.
  • History 312 should be completed no later than the end of the sixth semester.

A major program is complete when a student has successfully completed a minimum of 42 hours of credit in History (14 courses) of which a minimum of 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 300 level, and 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 400 level. Majors must complete courses totalling 6 semester hours of credit at the 200-400 levels in three of the five areas of study: Europe, Britain, the USA, Canada, and Global.

Minor in History

To complete a minor in History, the student must complete History 101/102 and five other history courses (15 semester hours), including

  • one Canadian history,
  • one continental European history,
  • one course each out of two of the following three fields: British history, USA history, and Global history,
  • one other history course.
  • At least two of the student’s courses must be at the 300 level or above.

Minor in Medieval and Renaissance Studies

Visit the Medieval and Renaissance Studies minor program page

Cross-listed/Area Courses

CREDITS FOR CROSS-LISTED COURSES

The Department accepts as part of its major or honours program a maximum of 12 hours (4 courses) of courses cross- credited to History from related disciplines. Of such courses, students can apply 6 hours (2 courses) taken at the 100 or 200 levels and 6 hours (2 courses) at the 300 or 400 levels. Students must have the prior approval of the Chair of History if credit is to be granted. The courses from related disciplines which may be approved for credit are the following:

Asian Studies 201 Introduction to West Asia
Asian Studies 202 Introduction to East Asia
Economics 311/312 History of Economic Thought
English 378 The Medieval Book
Fine Arts History 101/102 Art History
Religious Studies 331/332 History of Christianity

AREA COURSES

The Department offers the following “streams”—Canadian, USA, British, European, Global, and Others:

Canadian
101 Canadian History—Pre-Confederation
102 Canadian History—Post-Confederation
231 The Atlantic Region
232 The Atlantic Region
325 Canadian Social History to World War I
326 Canadian Social History since World War I
331 History of Prince Edward Island— Pre-Confederation
332 History of Prince Edward Island— Post-Confederation
352 The History of Quebec and French Canada
353 Canada and The First World War
385 Women in 19th-Century Canada
386 Women, the Law, and Civil Rights in 20th-Century Canada
415 Canada Apologizes: Studies in Historical Apologies
424 History of Canadian Nationalism and the Canadian Identity
425 Childhood in Modern Canada
426 A History of the Canadian Working Classes
489 20th-Century Prince Edward Island

USA
241 United States History—From the Colonial Period to Reconstruction
242 United States History since Reconstruction
333 Health Care and North American Society in Historical Perspective
391 The United States from 1900 through World War II
392 The United States since World War II
393 The American Mind and Imagination: From the Puritans to the Progressives
394 20th-Century American Intellectual History
395 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: A History of Immigration
396 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: African-American History
397 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: The Hispanic- American Experience
441 United States Foreign Policy from the Revolutionary Period through World War I
442 United States Foreign Policy since World War I

British
261 Britain in the Age of Revolutions: 1688-1860
262 Rule Britannia to Cool Britannia: Britain 1860-2000
310 Tudor England, 1485-1603: Creation of a Nation
362 Victorian Britain
363 Modern Irish History
472 Britain in the 20th-Century: Society, Culture and Identity
473 The Rise of Consumer Society: British Society in the 18th-Century 

European
201 European Civilization 500 BC-1648
202 European Civilization 1648 to the Present
303 Power, Culture and Consumption: the Renaissance in Italy
305 Martyrs, Marauders, Clerics and Kings: The Culture of the European Middle Ages
311 Science, Magic, Witchcraft, and the Occult in Premodern Europe
323 Russian History since 1682
341 German History since 1648
342 History of France since 1500
404 Monsters, Gold, and Glory: Travel, Trade and the Problem of Discovery in Premodern Europe
411 Europe Since Bismarck
485 The Ideas that changed Modern European History 

Global
215 Foreign Foods: Eating in the Age of Empires
222 From Magic to the Double Helix: Science and Society in Historical Perspective
321 History of Christianity to the Reformation
322 History of Christianity from the Reformation to the Present
327 Migration to Canada I
328 Migration to Canada II
371 The Atlantic World I
372 The Atlantic World II
373 The Second World War in Global Context
375 Tourism in western Society: The Travel Imperative
376 The History of Genocide
405 Crusades and Crusading
432 Britain and the Imperial Experience
434 Madness and Society
455 War and Revolution in the 20th Century World
483 The History of the Environmentalist Movement

Other
111 Discovering the Past
113 Crime and Punishment: Historical Themes
114 Plaque: Historical Themes
115 Nazi Germany: Historical Themes
116 The Devil in Western Society: Historical Themes
117 Rock and Roll From Presley to Punk: Historical Themes
211 The History Workshop: Skills and Methods in History
312 Themes and Debates in History
484 Applied Public History
491 Directed Studies
492 Directed Studies
497 Honours Tutorial in Historiography
498 Honours Graduating Essay

Normally, students who intend to major in History will choose History 101/102 as their introduction to history. These courses include an important tutorial component emphasizing introductory skills and methods of history.

200-level courses provide introductions to the histories of civilizations, regions, and countries, especially in the areas listed above. They are intended to build upon the skills acquired in first year History courses.

300-level courses provide more specialized studies in a number of areas.

400-level courses are usually seminars emphasizing discussion and research in more specialized areas.

While providing courses for students in all faculties, schools, and departments, the Department also provides a minor, major, and honours program for those who have a special interest in the study of history.

Faculty
  • Rev. Francis W.P. Bolger, Professor Emeritus
  • Andrew Robb, Professor Emeritus
  • Sharon Myers, Acting Chair, Assistant Professor
  • Susan Brown, Associate Professor
  • Ian Dowbiggin, Professor
  • Lisa Chilton, Associate Professor
  • Richard G. Kurial, Associate Professor
  • Edward MacDonald, Associate Professor
  • James Moran, Associate Professor
  • Richard Raiswell, Associate Professor

Overview

History is our collective memory. History shapes our identity, informing who we are as individuals, communities and nations. In our modern complex and diverse world, the study of history has never been more relevant. Understanding the origins and developments of institutions and ideas, tensions and conflicts, societies and civilizations improves our social awareness and provides insight into the perspectives of others, allowing us to make informed decisions about future courses of action.

Studying history provides students with a tool box of transferable skills that will serve them well in today’s evolving job market. History students are trained to be excellent researchers, tracking down information and communicating their analysis with clarity and confidence. A History degree at UPEI will hone students’ abilities to weigh and assess evidence and expert opinion, to evaluate causes and consequences, and provide them with a foundation from which to develop practical solutions to contemporary problems. Our History graduates are pursuing successful careers in heritage and conservation, law, journalism, education, medicine, social services, policy analysis, business, communications, and digital information management.

History professors at UPEI are award-winning educators and researchers with a wide variety of historical interests. Our course offerings include studies ranging from the local history of PEI to the history of global exploration; from Antiquity and the Middle Ages to the present; and themes encompassing the impact of wars and revolutions on past societies, the history of science and medicine, and the history of gender relations. Our Public History course provides students with an opportunity to gain valuable internship experience in government, heritage and cultural workplaces.

UPEI History professors work closely with individual students, mentoring them to help them achieve their goals. The History Student Society thrives at UPEI, providing history students with a supportive, socially active university community.

Welcome – we look forward to meeting you and sharing our passion for the past and its relevance for the future.

For more information about the History Program or to meet with a member of the department, our contact details can be found on the right of this page.

Edward MacDonald, Chair
UPEI Department of History

Honours

To be admitted to the honours program, the student must submit a letter of application to the Honours Co-ordinator. Applicants must be registered in, or have completed, the major program. Applications are normally submitted during the fourth or fifth semester. Decisions on admission are made by the department acting as a committee of the whole. Admissions decisions will be made on the basis of demonstrated and potential ability to carry out independent research and sustained historical analysis. Meeting the minimum entry requirements does not guarantee admission.

  • Applicants must have a minimum average of 70% in all previous University courses. Normally, the Department expects an average of at least 75% in all previous history courses.
  • In addition to the courses required for the major, honours students are required to complete History 497 and 498.
  • Each honours student must prepare a graduating honours essay under the direction of a supervisor. This essay will be evaluated by a three-person committee, one member of which will be from outside the Department.
  • The candidate must take a final oral examination on the essay.
  • Students intending to enter graduate programs should be aware that many such programs require a reading knowledge of a second language. Undergraduate courses in a second language are a useful preparation for graduate work in history.

An honours program is complete when the student completes:

  1. a total of 126 semester hours of course credits with a mini- mum overall average of 70%;
  2. a total of 48 semester hours of course credits in History (6 semester hours in addition to the minimum required for the major), with a minimum average of 75%.

Major/Minors

Major in History

To register as a major in History, a student must complete History 101/102 and six semester hours (2 courses) at the 200 level. Students are urged to take History 201/202 in the first or second year to satisfy the second requirement. Students may take additional 200-level courses.

  • History 101/102, 201/202, 211, and 312 are compulsory for students in the major program.
  • History 101/102, 201/202, and 211 should be completed by the end of the fourth semester.
  • History 312 should be completed no later than the end of the sixth semester.

A major program is complete when a student has successfully completed a minimum of 42 hours of credit in History (14 courses) of which a minimum of 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 300 level, and 9 hours (3 courses) must be at the 400 level. Majors must complete courses totalling 6 semester hours of credit at the 200-400 levels in three of the five areas of study: Europe, Britain, the USA, Canada, and Global.

Minor in History

To complete a minor in History, the student must complete History 101/102 and five other history courses (15 semester hours), including

  • one Canadian history,
  • one continental European history,
  • one course each out of two of the following three fields: British history, USA history, and Global history,
  • one other history course.
  • At least two of the student’s courses must be at the 300 level or above.

Minor in Medieval and Renaissance Studies

Visit the Medieval and Renaissance Studies minor program page

Cross-listed/Area Courses

CREDITS FOR CROSS-LISTED COURSES

The Department accepts as part of its major or honours program a maximum of 12 hours (4 courses) of courses cross- credited to History from related disciplines. Of such courses, students can apply 6 hours (2 courses) taken at the 100 or 200 levels and 6 hours (2 courses) at the 300 or 400 levels. Students must have the prior approval of the Chair of History if credit is to be granted. The courses from related disciplines which may be approved for credit are the following:

Asian Studies 201 Introduction to West Asia
Asian Studies 202 Introduction to East Asia
Economics 311/312 History of Economic Thought
English 378 The Medieval Book
Fine Arts History 101/102 Art History
Religious Studies 331/332 History of Christianity

AREA COURSES

The Department offers the following “streams”—Canadian, USA, British, European, Global, and Others:

Canadian
101 Canadian History—Pre-Confederation
102 Canadian History—Post-Confederation
231 The Atlantic Region
232 The Atlantic Region
325 Canadian Social History to World War I
326 Canadian Social History since World War I
331 History of Prince Edward Island— Pre-Confederation
332 History of Prince Edward Island— Post-Confederation
352 The History of Quebec and French Canada
353 Canada and The First World War
385 Women in 19th-Century Canada
386 Women, the Law, and Civil Rights in 20th-Century Canada
415 Canada Apologizes: Studies in Historical Apologies
424 History of Canadian Nationalism and the Canadian Identity
425 Childhood in Modern Canada
426 A History of the Canadian Working Classes
489 20th-Century Prince Edward Island

USA
241 United States History—From the Colonial Period to Reconstruction
242 United States History since Reconstruction
333 Health Care and North American Society in Historical Perspective
391 The United States from 1900 through World War II
392 The United States since World War II
393 The American Mind and Imagination: From the Puritans to the Progressives
394 20th-Century American Intellectual History
395 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: A History of Immigration
396 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: African-American History
397 Race & Ethnicity in American Life: The Hispanic- American Experience
441 United States Foreign Policy from the Revolutionary Period through World War I
442 United States Foreign Policy since World War I

British
261 Britain in the Age of Revolutions: 1688-1860
262 Rule Britannia to Cool Britannia: Britain 1860-2000
310 Tudor England, 1485-1603: Creation of a Nation
362 Victorian Britain
363 Modern Irish History
472 Britain in the 20th-Century: Society, Culture and Identity
473 The Rise of Consumer Society: British Society in the 18th-Century 

European
201 European Civilization 500 BC-1648
202 European Civilization 1648 to the Present
303 Power, Culture and Consumption: the Renaissance in Italy
305 Martyrs, Marauders, Clerics and Kings: The Culture of the European Middle Ages
311 Science, Magic, Witchcraft, and the Occult in Premodern Europe
323 Russian History since 1682
341 German History since 1648
342 History of France since 1500
404 Monsters, Gold, and Glory: Travel, Trade and the Problem of Discovery in Premodern Europe
411 Europe Since Bismarck
485 The Ideas that changed Modern European History 

Global
215 Foreign Foods: Eating in the Age of Empires
222 From Magic to the Double Helix: Science and Society in Historical Perspective
321 History of Christianity to the Reformation
322 History of Christianity from the Reformation to the Present
327 Migration to Canada I
328 Migration to Canada II
371 The Atlantic World I
372 The Atlantic World II
373 The Second World War in Global Context
375 Tourism in western Society: The Travel Imperative
376 The History of Genocide
405 Crusades and Crusading
432 Britain and the Imperial Experience
434 Madness and Society
455 War and Revolution in the 20th Century World
483 The History of the Environmentalist Movement

Other
111 Discovering the Past
113 Crime and Punishment: Historical Themes
114 Plaque: Historical Themes
115 Nazi Germany: Historical Themes
116 The Devil in Western Society: Historical Themes
117 Rock and Roll From Presley to Punk: Historical Themes
211 The History Workshop: Skills and Methods in History
312 Themes and Debates in History
484 Applied Public History
491 Directed Studies
492 Directed Studies
497 Honours Tutorial in Historiography
498 Honours Graduating Essay

Normally, students who intend to major in History will choose History 101/102 as their introduction to history. These courses include an important tutorial component emphasizing introductory skills and methods of history.

200-level courses provide introductions to the histories of civilizations, regions, and countries, especially in the areas listed above. They are intended to build upon the skills acquired in first year History courses.

300-level courses provide more specialized studies in a number of areas.

400-level courses are usually seminars emphasizing discussion and research in more specialized areas.

While providing courses for students in all faculties, schools, and departments, the Department also provides a minor, major, and honours program for those who have a special interest in the study of history.

Faculty

  • Rev. Francis W.P. Bolger, Professor Emeritus
  • Andrew Robb, Professor Emeritus
  • Sharon Myers, Acting Chair, Assistant Professor
  • Susan Brown, Associate Professor
  • Ian Dowbiggin, Professor
  • Lisa Chilton, Associate Professor
  • Richard G. Kurial, Associate Professor
  • Edward MacDonald, Associate Professor
  • James Moran, Associate Professor
  • Richard Raiswell, Associate Professor
Want more information about History? Leave your email address and we'll get in touch!
First Name:
Last Name:
E-mail Address:
Careers: 
Educator
Archivist
Journalist
Contract Historian
Librarian
Writer
Course Level: 
100 Level
Courses: 

101 CANADIAN HISTORY—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history up to and including the attainment of Confederation. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

102 CANADIAN HISTORY—POST-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history in the Post-Confederation period. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

103 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART I
(See Fine Arts History 101)

104 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART II
(See Fine Arts History 102)

111 DISCOVERING THE PAST
This course is a unique and exciting chance for students to work closely with each other and with a professor in a seminar, applying the techniques of historical investigation to shed light on one particular issue. These techniques include; the careful analysis of primary sources; an appreciation that there are different historical interpretations of the same subject; an understanding of how the subject under investigation changes over time. Instead of regular lectures, in each class students work through a series of carefully selected readings which forms the basis for interactive discussions. Each year, the seminar is devoted to a different historical issue, and is led by a different professor from the History department. Read more

113 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course provides an introduction to changing ideas and practices surrounding crime and punishment over time. Topics may include who has been identified as a threat to the social order, including thieves, prostitutes, vagrants, and young offenders, and the punishments that societies have deemed appropriate for criminals, including public executions, exile, and imprisonment. Additionally, the course provides opportunities to explore and to develop skills in historical thinking and methods.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

114 PLAGUE: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course introduces students to plague, an important
 aspect of disease and health history. From the devastating outbreaks of the Black Death in medieval Europe, to the contemporary phenomenon of Ebola, the course focuses on the ways in which major outbreaks of infectious disease have shaped societies. The course considers the medical, social, economic, and political consequences of epidemics and pandemics. The course explores how various forms of plague were understood when they happened, and how our views of them have changed over time. This will be done by reading important works on plagues, and by examining original sources that were produced by those living through major disease outbreaks as they unfolded.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

115 NAZI GERMANY 
This course covers the history of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich (1933-1945) from the origins of the Nazi Party during the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) to the post-World War II trials of German war criminals.  Topics include Hitler’s life and career, the Nazi Party’s electoral success, the causes and course of World War II from the German perspective, the Holocaust, and the relations between the churches and the Nazi regime.  The course seeks to answer the question: why did Germans support Hitler? 
Three credit hours

116 THE DEVIL IN WESTERN SOCIETY: HISTORICAL THEMES
From Megiddo and Patmos, through the sewers of nineteenth-century Paris and into the studios of America’s televangelists, this course will examine how the figure of the devil has been made and remade over the centuries in response to broader historical trends. Topics may include: the ancient combat myth; the devil in the Christian scriptures; Satan and Lucifer; the devil and the saints; the idea of hell; monks and demons; demonic witchcraft; the development of exorcism; Protestant devils; the devil in art, literature and film; the demonization of outsiders; devils and the New World and Old; comedic devils; and the devil in the modern American consciousness.
Three credit hours

117 ROCK AND ROLL FROM PRESLEY TO PUNK:  HISTORICAL THEMES
This course explores the social, cultural, and political contexts for the evolution of rock and roll music during the post-Second World War era when a new musical form was grafted onto the popular music industry. Beginning with the roots of rock and roll music in African American communities, the course follows the progress of rock and roll music from the early 1950s to the Punk era of the late 1970s, focusing on the symbiotic relationship between iconic performers and their times.
Three credit hours, Lecture and Discussion

Course Level: 
200 Level
Courses: 

201 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 500 BC-1648
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the rise of classical Greece to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.  Lectures analyze the major political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped European society during this period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

202 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 1648 TO THE PRESENT
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the end of the Thirty Years’ War to the present. Lectures analyze the main political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped Europe from the early modern to the post-industrial period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the second year level.

211 THE HISTORY WORKSHOP: SKILLS AND METHODS IN HISTORY
This introductory course offers students the opportunity to develop their research, writing and critical thinking skills while introducing them to the nature of historical method and inquiry. The course provides instruction and practice in the use of standard print and electronic bibliographic tools and in the writing of research, analytical and critical papers in history. Topics of study include the relationship between history and truth, the uses of evidence and argumentation, and the varieties of historical research. The course features library workshops as well as experience using local archives. 
Lecture/Discussion/ Workshops: Three hours a week

215 FOREIGN FOODS: EATING IN THE AGE OF EMPIRES
Food has been understood in a variety of ways:   spices to preserve and mask rotting meats; sugar, chocolate and raisins as cure-alls; cocoa as a hallucinogen; potatoes as a plot to kill off surplus peasants; porridge as a middle-class conspiracy to undermine working-class culture.  In this course we use intrinsically interesting case studies to explore important themes in the history of food discovery, distribution, and consumption.  Underlying themes may include the use of unfree labour, the expansion of a capitalist economic system, the growth and evolution of European imperialism, and negotiations in social relations along class, gender, and racial/ethnic lines.
Three credit hours

222 FROM MAGIC TO THE DOUBLE HELIX: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course evaluates the history of science from the scientific revolution to late twentieth century. It also evaluates how science has been understood differently from one period to the next, how science has been grounded in cultural, social, and political currents, and how scientific understandings and perceptions have influenced how we see the world around us. This survey includes the study of major changes in scientific outlook brought about by thinkers like Isaac Newton, Auguste Comte, Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie and Albert Einstein. Important technological developments and the professionalization of scientific knowledge are also considered.
Three semester hours

231 THE ATLANTIC REGION
This course examines Atlantic Canada from the early interactions between the Mi’kmaq and Beothuk and the Europeans in the 16th century through to the middle of the 19th century when Atlantic Canadians adopted a modern vision of democratic culture and social improvement.  Topics of study will include native-newcomer interactions, the growth of Acadia and the Expulsion of the Acadians, the impact of the Planters and Loyalists, the Land Question on PEI, ethno-religious tension, social reform movements, and the question of Confederation.
Three hours a week

232 THE ATLANTIC REGION
A continuation of History 231.
Three hours a week

241 UNITED STATES HISTORY—FROM THE COLONIAL PERIOD TO RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in United States History begins with the Colonial period and concludes with an examination of the Civil War and Reconstruction. It covers a variety of topics in social, political, economic, diplomatic, military, and constitutional history.
Lecture: Three hours a week

242 UNITED STATES HISTORY SINCE RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in modern United States History examines industrial and urban development, modern political trends, social themes, and the development of the United States as a world power. Topics covered include Progressivism, the American role in World War I and World War II, the New Deal, and contemporary American society.
Lecture: Three hours a week

251 GREEK CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 101)

252 ROMAN CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 102)

261 BRITAIN IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS: 1688-1860
This course surveys the major political, social and cultural developments in British history from the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 to the age of the industrial revolution. Topics include the changing role of the monarchy, political patronage and social elites, crime and the law, radical political movements in the era of the French revolution, the growth of industrialization and its impact on working and living conditions, poverty and disease in Victorian cities, Irish nationalism, family life and “Victorian values,” and imperial conflicts in India and the Crimea.
Lecture: Three hours a week

262 RULE BRITANNIA TO COOL BRITANNIA: BRITAIN 1860-2000
This course surveys British political and social developments from the period of Victorian British imperialism to the era of “Swinging London” and “Cool Britannia” at the end of the 20th century. Topics include the advent of a democratic political system, the rise of the labour movement, suffragette protest, Irish nationalism, the repercussions of World Wars I and II, post-war popular culture, and the era of Thatcherism.
Lecture: Three hours a week

271 AUGUSTUS AND THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
(See Classics 312)

272 THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE, 284-410 AD
(See Classics 342)

291 INTRODUCTION TO WEST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 201)

292 INTRODUCTION TO EAST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 202)

Course Level: 
300 Level
Courses: 

303 POWER, CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION: THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
This course examines the period bounded by the Black Death and the Protestant Reformation. It explores the major political, intellectual and cultural developments in Renaissance Italy and their later translation to Northern Europe. Topics may include the place of Italy in the late medieval world; the causes and consequences of the crises of the fourteenth century; the emergence of humanism and the revival of antiquity; the relationship between culture and power; popular piety; new models of gender relations in Renaissance society; the impact of printing; and the unique shape of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Assignments will stress primary source analysis.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

305 MARTYRS, MARAUDERS, CLERICS AND KINGS: THE CULTURE OF THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES
This course traces the history of Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Black Death of the fourteenth century. Topics include the early history of Christianity and Islam, the Carolingian renaissance, the Viking invasions, the growth of the Papacy, the emergence of nation states, and the Crusades
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the third-year level.

310 TUDOR ENGLAND -1485-1603: CREATION OF A NATION
This course examines how the kings and queens of the Tudor dynasty transformed England from a crumbling, medieval monarchy into a powerful, centralized nation. It was a bloody process that saw thousands of English men and women lose their lives, but the result was an English nation endowed with a unique sense of identity, culture, and mission in the world. Topics include Henry VIII and the search for a legitimate heir; the Reformation in England; the evolution of queenship under Mary and Elizabeth; the ideological revolution and the problem of dissent; the changing structures of society; and the contrasting worlds of high and low culture.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

311 SCIENCE, MAGIC, WITCHCRAFT AND THE OCCULT IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This course investigates how men and women sought to understand, explain, control and manipulate the natural world in the early modern period. Topics include medieval cosmology and astrology; alchemy and learned magic; changing views of the role of the devil in the natural world; witch belief and witch hunting. Particular attention is paid to how the traditions of learned magic informed the development of science in the seventeenth century.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three semester hours of credit

312 THEMES AND DEBATES IN HISTORY
This course introduces students to some of the key theories and debates within current Western historiography (the study of historical writing). History is fundamentally concerned with the analysis of evidence, yet historians often disagree over the interpretation of that evidence and what is considered causally significant. This course will consider major “schools” and concepts of historical analysis that shape how history is interpreted. Topics may include the role of ideas and individuals versus broad economic and social forces; class, gender, race, post-colonialism, post-modernism, oral history, public history, and digital history.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week.

321 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE REFORMATION
This course examines the growth and development of Christianity prior to the Reformation. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between the growth of the Church and the broader historical context within which it occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 331)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

322 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE PRESENT
This course examines some of the principal developments within Christianity from the Reformation until the present. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between these developments and the broader historical context within which they occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 332)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

323 RUSSIAN HISTORY SINCE 1682
This course explores the political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural history of Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. It covers topics such as Russia’s rise as a European power in the 18th and 19th centuries, the development of Russian autocracy, the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, the history of the Soviet Union under Lenin and Stalin, the nationalities question, the collapse of communism, and Russia since Gorbachev.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

325 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY TO WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the day-to-day lives of Canadians within their respective communities to World War I. Topics of study may include native society, pioneering, immigration and outmigration, the Victorian frame of mind, industrialization and urbanization, social and ethnic groups, attitudes and mores, working conditions, reform, the arts, and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

326 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the lives of Canadians within their respective communities since World War I. Topics of study may include immigration and ethnicity, industrialization and urbanization, reform, labour, health, education, welfare, crime and punishment, the arts and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

327 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA I
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the mid-18th century and the First World War. Migrant groups studied include the Loyalists of the late 18th century, African Americans, the Irish Famine, and the Central and East Europeans.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

328 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA II
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the First World War and the present. Some of the migrants whose histories will be highlighted are Chinese and Japanese settlers in the west during the early 20th century, Jews, Italians, peoples from the Caribbean islands, and peoples from the Middle East.
PREREQUISITES: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

331 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island until 1864 emphasizes the French Regime, the development of colonial institutions, the struggle for the attainment of Responsible Government, and the influence of the land tenure system on the economic, political, and social development of the Island.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

332 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—POST-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island from 1864 until the present emphasizes the role of the Island in the Confederation movement, its entry into Confederation, and provincial-federal adjustments as they affected Prince Edward Island’s history.  It is recommended that History 331/332 be taken in sequence.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

333 HEALTH CARE AND NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course explores the history of health, disease and medicine, focussing on North America from the time of contact between Native Peoples and Europeans, to the present. The course is organized around four major themes in the history of health and illness: historical epidemiology, social and political responses to health and disease, the rise of modern medicine and other health care groups, and the recent challenges to regular medical practice by alternative health care providers. Particular attention is paid to the effects of shifting systems of medical practice on patient experience.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

341 GERMAN HISTORY SINCE 1648
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Thirty Years’ War, Austro-Prussian rivalry in the 18th century, German unification in the 19th Century, World War One, Hitler’s Third Reich, the division of Germany after 1945, and Germany since the collapse of communism.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

342 HISTORY OF FRANCE SINCE 1500
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of France since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Wars of Religion, the Age of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, Franco-German rivalry, the Dreyfus Affair, the Presidency of Charles DeGaulle, and the student revolts of 1968.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

352 THE HISTORY OF QUEBEC AND FRENCH CANADA
This course examines the social, economic and political history of Quebec. It examines economic development, political change, secularization, and the rise of nationalist and separatist movements. It also explores the changing relations between Quebec and prominent French Canadian communities else- where in Canada.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

353 CANADA AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
This course will examine the underlying causes of the First World War, the experiences of those who fought overseas, and the impact of war on the work and lives of those on the home front. Although the course will consider the international context of war, particular attention will be paid to the Canadian experience of the First World War, including the conscription controversy, post-war commemoration, and the legacy of the First World War for Canadian identity, politics, and culture in the twentieth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

362 VICTORIAN BRITAIN
This course explores themes in British social, political and cultural history in the nineteenth century. The course examines the nature of the changes sweeping British society, particularly those associated with Britain’s congested cities and the urban working class. The anxieties and fears generated by these changes will constitute the focus of this course. The course challenges many popular stereotypes of the “Victorian Age” through its exploration of family life, poverty, sexuality, crime, drugs, disease and death in the Victorian city.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

363 MODERN IRISH HISTORY
This course examines key developments in Irish history from the eighteenth century to the present. Drawing upon scholarly articles, visual images, song, film and documentary evidence, the course explores the various struggles over land, politics and culture that have shaped the past two centuries of Irish history. Two central themes that run through the course are the contested meanings of “the Irish nation” and the uses of history in contemporary commemoration and politics. The course concludes with an inquiry into the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland and the ongoing search for peace and political stability.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

371 THE ATLANTIC WORLD I
This course examines the emergence of an Atlantic world through the European “discovery,” conquest, and colonization of the Americas. The interaction of West African, Western European and Aboriginal American peoples, and the societies and institutions they developed, is the focus of the course. Spanish, English, French and Portuguese activity in the Atlantic and the Americas is surveyed, with particular attention given to topics such as labour systems, religious patterns, agriculture, and the nature of colonial societies before 1700.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

372 THE ATLANTIC WORLD II
This course traces the emergence of a maturing Atlantic world from the latter 1600s to the period of independence. The shape and interaction of the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and their colonial empires, together with the continuing relationship with African and Aboriginal American peoples, is the focus of study. Slavery, the plantation system, differing patterns of development, and political independence are given particular attention.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

373 THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN GLOBAL CONTEXT
This course combines lectures and class discussions and covers the history of the Second World War, its causes, conduct, and impact on twentieth century history. Topics include the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement in Germany; the international crises of the 1930s; the war on land, on sea, and in the air in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East; the Holocaust; the wartime conferences of Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt; the use of atomic weapons against Japan; the post-war Nuremberg Trials; the origins of the Cold War; and the impact of the war on society and the home front. 
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

375 TOURISM AND WESTERN SOCIETY: THE TRAVEL IMPERATIVE
This course will provide an historical overview of the evolution of tourism with special emphasis on the Western world, beginning with the medieval passion for pilgrimage through the Enlightenment Grand Tour to the birth of the modern tourist trade, one of the world's fastest growing industries. A series of case studies will be used to pursue specific topics, such as the economics of tourism, motivation for travel, the rise of the resort, the transportation revolution, promotion and imaging, the conflicted relationship between visitor and host, sustainability, and the social and cultural impacts of tourism on host societies.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

376 THE HISTORY OF GENOCIDE
This course covers the history of genocide as both a type of historical event and as a concept which has shaped international policy-making and legal practice.  Topics include the Holocaust, the Ukrainian Holomodor, the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the “Killing Fields” of Cambodia, the Armenian and Rwandan atrocities, and the life and career of Raphael Lemkin, who coined and defined the term.  The course seeks to answer the question: what is genocide and how does it differ from ordinary cruelty towards other human beings?    
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

378 THE MEDIEVAL BOOK
(See English 378)

385 WOMEN IN 19th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the changes that have taken place in the historical roles of women in Canadian society, and the relationship of these changes to social, economic, and intellectual developments. Using both a thematic and chronological approach, the course examines women’s roles from the beginning of the 19th Century to the achievement of suffrage in the 20th Century.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 385)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

386 WOMEN, THE LAW, AND CIVIL RIGHTS IN 20th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the experiences of women in 20th-Century Canadian society viewed through the prism of law and civil rights. Topics of study include the struggle for the right to vote, the Persons Case, efforts to secure equality in the workplace, the regulation of sexuality and reproduction, and the particular experiences of immigrant and Indigenous women in relation to civil rights.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 386)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

391 THE UNITED STATES FROM 1900 THROUGH WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics from the turn of the century through World War II. The course covers such topics as Populism, Progressivism, World War I, the “roaring 20s” and the “dirty 30s,” as well as World War II.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

392 THE UNITED STATES SINCE WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics since World War II. The course covers such topics as the Cold War, anti-Communist crusades, the evolution of the American welfare state, the civil rights movement, the war in Vietnam, and competing visions of America’s economic and political destiny.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

393 THE AMERICAN MIND AND IMAGINATION: FROM THE PURITANS TO THE PROGRESSIVES
This course examines the history of American thought from the Puritans to the Pragmatists. With an emphasis on religion, politics, and economics, it seeks to identify the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

394 20th-CENTURY AMERICAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
This course examines the history of American thought in the 20th century. It emphasizes religion, politics, and economics and includes an examination of major intellects from William James to Richard Rorty. It seeks to illuminate the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage in what has been coined “America’s Century.”
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

396 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY
This course provides an introduction to African-American history. Beginning with the introduction of slavery into the American colonies, it examines the journey from slavery to freedom, the limits to freedom, and the persistent struggle for civil rights in American society.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

397 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: THE HISPANIC-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE
This course provides an introduction to Hispanic-American history. Beginning with the Spanish conquest, this course ex- amines the struggle for independence, the American conquest, and the evolution of Chicano culture and La Raza as aspects of the persistent struggle for civil rights in America.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

Course Level: 
400 Level
Courses: 

404 “MONSTERS, GOLD, AND GLORY”:  TRAVEL, TRADE, AND THE PROBLEM OF DISCOVERY IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This advanced seminar examines European interaction with Asia and Africa from the time of Alexander the Great and the Ancient Greeks up to the formation of the large trading companies in the early 17th century, when Europeans understood the lands of the far east and south to be inhabited by strange semi-human peoples and the earth filled with gold and precious stones. This course examines the sources and evolution of this lore, noting how it affected the way explorers and merchant adventurers of the 16th century understood the world and interacted with the peoples they encountered. Topics include the development of the Greek and Roman world view; Europe’s experience with barbarism; the Pax Mongolica and the development of the medieval world system; medieval geography; the cartographic revolution; explanations of difference and the emergence of race; cross-cultural exchange; and hybridity.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

405 CRUSADES AND CRUSADING
This advanced seminar course examines the crusading movement of the High Middle Ages from both the Christian and Islamic perspective. Topics may include: the Reconquista; Urban II and the development of early crusading theory; Abbasid-Fatimid relations; the evolution of Christian notions of knighthood and the rise of the military orders; the development and application of Christian and Islamic notions of holy war; Crusading against Christians; the logistics of crusading; Christian-Muslim interaction in the Levant; and the counter- crusade under Salah al-Din and Sultan Baybars. Students will be expected to read and engage with a diverse assortment of primary sources, taken from both Christian and Islamic contexts.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

409 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the fourth year level.

411 EUROPE SINCE BISMARCK
This seminar course covers the social, political, economic, cultural, military, and diplomatic history of twentieth-century Europe from the age of nationalism in the late nineteenth century to the post-Cold War era of ethnic conflict and economic integration. Topics include imperialism, nationalism, World Wars One and Two, Nazism, decolonization, the Cold War, the European Union, the rise and fall of communism, the Balkan wars of the 1990s, globalization, and the rise of the New Right. Using a comparative perspective, the course examines what forces have united and divided Europe’s nations since the end of the nineteenth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

415 CANADA APOLOGIZES: STUDIES IN HISTORICAL APOLOGIES
This course considers the phenomenon of the historical apology in the modern Canadian context.  Students are introduced to a collection of historical events for which governments and churches have since offered official apologies for their participation.  Case studies include:  the imposition of the Chinese Head Tax, the denials of entries to the Komagata Maru and the S. S. St. Louis, the internment of the Japanese during World War II, the institutionalization of the Duplessis Orphans, the operation of Indian Residential Schools, the relocation of the Inuit, and the relocation of Africville.  This course poses these questions: is it possible to right the wrongs of the past, and to what extent do past wrongs belong to us.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

424 HISTORY OF CANADIAN NATIONALISM AND THE CANADIAN IDENTITY
This seminar course examines the development of Canadian nationalist thought and the evolution of the Canadian identity. Topics to be examined may include the evolution of national symbols, such as the Mountie, hockey, and the canoe, and their roles in the process of Canadian nation building and identity formation.  The course also examines the influence of the United States and Great Britain in shaping Canadian identity, and the promotion of a distinctive Canadian culture through a variety of media ranging from tourism pamphlets to the CBC.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar:  Three hours a week

425 CHILDHOOD IN MODERN CANADA
This is a seminar course in 19th- and 20th- Century Canadian social history which takes the experiences of children as its central focus. Themes of study may include the rise and decline of child labour, the development of education and child welfare systems, and changing ideas about childhood and the family.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

426 A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN WORKING CLASSES
From fur trader, to factory hand, to fast-food worker, this seminar course explores the historical experiences of working men, women and children in Canada. Topics of study may include early forms of labour, such as slavery; the industrial revolution and its effects on working class families; the growth of scientific management in the workplace; and the dislocations posed by the Great Depression and the growth of industrial legality. Working class culture, organization and resistance are considered, as are certain ideas about workers, such as the respectable worker and the “breadwinner.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

432 BRITAIN AND THE IMPERIAL EXPERIENCE
This advanced seminar course examines Britain’s experience of empire and imperialism from its days as a colony of the Roman Empire up to and including decolonisation in the twentieth century. Through a series of case studies and cross-cultural and trans-regional thematic comparisons, this course will introduce students to some of the main issues underlying the study of empire, colonialism and the relationship between coloniser and colonised in the British Empire. Topics may include: the ambiguous legacy of Rome; Wales, England’s first colonial experience; Ireland and the early pattern of imperialism; England and the Moghul Empire; England and the Caribbean; the rhetoric of Empire; Britain’s involvement in the scramble for Africa; the emergence of racial theory; the tools of imperial- ism; culture and imperialism; colonial resistance; decolonisation in South Asia and southern Africa; the post-colonial empire.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

434 MADNESS AND SOCIETY
This course examines the history of madness in comparative context from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present with a focus on Europe and North America. Topics include major historical developments in the understanding of madness such as traditional responses to unsoundness of mind, the development of asylums, the rise of professional psychiatry, scientific models of mental illness, and the community care movement. Pivotal theorists, including Freud, Kraepelin, Foucault, and Szasz are discussed.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

441 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY FROM THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD THROUGH WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from the American Revolution through World War I. Topics include neutrality, the changing role of the United States in foreign relations, the interaction between domestic and foreign policy, American expansionism, and political, economic, and cultural relationships between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

442 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from World War I through the end of the Cold War. Topics include the interwar years, the origins of World War II, post- war American hegemony, the Cold War, the New World Order, and political, economic, and cultural interaction between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

455 WAR AND REVOLUTION IN THE 20th CENTURY WORLD
This course examines the history of the world since the First World War. It explores crucial events such as the First and Second World Wars; communist revolution in countries such as Russia, China, Cambodia and Cuba; decolonization; the Korean conflict; war in southeast Asia; the Cold War; the collapse of communism in eastern Europe; and the Persian Gulf War. It also focuses on pivotal figures such as Lenin, Churchill, Hitler, Mao, Thatcher, De Gaulle, Gorbachev, and Castro.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

461 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT I
(See Economics 311)

462 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT II
(See Economics 312)

472 BRITAIN IN THE 20th CENTURY: SOCIETY, CULTURE AND IDENTITY
This course explores the construction of British national identities in the twentieth century, in particular how issues of class, gender, race and nationalism have been represented in popular culture. Topics may include the social impacts of World War I, the experience of the Depression era, British Fascist movements, the Blitz, post-war austerity, youth culture, multi-racial Britain, and football violence. Course materials include journalism of the period, film footage, oral history, diaries, pop music and contemporary cinema.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 474)
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

473 THE RISE OF CONSUMER SOCIETY: BRITISH SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY
This course examines the social and cultural changes brought about by the birth of a consumer society in 18th-century Britain. Topics include the rise of commercial society and consumerism, new techniques in marketing and advertising, the debate over fashion and luxury, the emergence of the public sphere of the coffeehouse, the commercialization of theatre and the art market, and the relationship between commerce, crime and punishment.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

483 THE HISTORY OF THE ENVIRONMENTALIST MOVEMENT
This seminar course covers the history of the environmentalist movement in the United States and Canada since its origins in the late nineteenth century. It describes the changes the movement has undergone thanks to its links to the conservation, eugenics, ecology, birth control, and population control movements. The course also focuses on the writings of key figures in the environmentalist movement, such as Paul Ehrlich, Barry Commoner, Rachel Carson, David Suzuki, and Bill McKibben, as well as the activities of organizations such as the Sierra Club, Zero Population Growth, and Earth First. Students seek to understand the nature of today’s environmentalism as a political, social, and cultural movement by examining what it has meant to earlier generations.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

484 APPLIED PUBLIC HISTORY
This course introduces students to both the field of public history and the application of history and historical methods in a variety of workplace settings. Public history, which involves the practice and presentation of history outside the academic setting, is the domain of a wide variety of practitioners. While the course deals primarily with the North American context, it also addresses questions of ethics, standards, and audience of broader interest to students of history.
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing in a history major or honours program, as well as permission of the department
Seminar/field work: Three hours a week and eight hours per week of unpaid field work in a public history workplace setting, supervised by a qualified professional acting as a mentor.
Semester hours of credit: 6

485 THE IDEAS THAT CHANGED MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY
This course covers the history of European ideas since the French Revolution and focuses on the main political ideologies that have arisen over the last two centuries. Topics include conservatism, liberalism, socialism, feminism, imperialism, nationalism, Soviet communism, and environmentalism. The course seeks to determine the fate of these ideologies as the twenty-first century unfolds.
Cross-listed with Political Science (cf. Political Science 436)
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

489 20th CENTURY PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
This course examines major economic, political, and cultural developments within Prince Edward Island during the 20th century. Topics include the effects of technological change; Maritime Union; federal-provincial relations, including transfer payments and the 15-year Comprehensive Development Plan; “Rural Renaissance”; the constitutional discussions of the 1980s and 1990s; and the debate surrounding construction of the “fixed link.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

491-492 DIRECTED STUDIES
These tutorial courses are intended to encourage independent initiative and study on the part of the student. Reading and research are conducted within specialized areas chosen by the student in close consultation with one or more members of the Department. This course is restricted to qualified Third and Fourth Year students in any discipline.

Canadian
The possible areas of study are:
The History of Canadian Native Peoples
Western Canadian History Canadian Social History Canadian Women’s History
Folk History of Prince Edward Island
PEI Social and Cultural
Atlantic Region Social and Cultural

American:
U.S. Foreign Policy, 20th-Century
18th-, 19th-, and 20th-Century America
Canadian-American Relations
Colonial Societies

British and European:
British History
British Social and Cultural History
Western and Central Europe
European, Medieval, Modern, and Intellectual History Early Modern Europe—Social and Cultural History Gender in British and European History
History of Religion
See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.

493 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 431 (with approval of History Chair))

494 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 432 (with approval of History Chair))

HONOURS COURSES

These courses are restricted to students registered in the History Honours Program. For regulations see above.

497 HONOURS TUTORIAL IN HISTORIOGRAPHY
This is an intensive reading and tutorial course in selected fields offered by the Department. Students should consult with the honours advisor in planning this course. The course normally centres on the historiography of the broad area in which the student’s graduating essay is prepared.
Tutorial: Three hours a week

498 HONOURS GRADUATING ESSAY
Students propose, research, and write a major research essay under the supervision of a tutor from the Department. The essay is the subject of a final oral examination. The oral examination committee consists of the major tutor, one additional member from the Department of History, and a faculty member from another Department of the University.
Tutorial: Three semester hours of credit
 

Calendar Courses

101 CANADIAN HISTORY—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history up to and including the attainment of Confederation. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

102 CANADIAN HISTORY—POST-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history in the Post-Confederation period. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

103 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART I
(See Fine Arts History 101)

104 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART II
(See Fine Arts History 102)

111 DISCOVERING THE PAST
This course is a unique and exciting chance for students to work closely with each other and with a professor in a seminar, applying the techniques of historical investigation to shed light on one particular issue. These techniques include; the careful analysis of primary sources; an appreciation that there are different historical interpretations of the same subject; an understanding of how the subject under investigation changes over time. Instead of regular lectures, in each class students work through a series of carefully selected readings which forms the basis for interactive discussions. Each year, the seminar is devoted to a different historical issue, and is led by a different professor from the History department. Read more

113 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course provides an introduction to changing ideas and practices surrounding crime and punishment over time. Topics may include who has been identified as a threat to the social order, including thieves, prostitutes, vagrants, and young offenders, and the punishments that societies have deemed appropriate for criminals, including public executions, exile, and imprisonment. Additionally, the course provides opportunities to explore and to develop skills in historical thinking and methods.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

114 PLAGUE: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course introduces students to plague, an important
 aspect of disease and health history. From the devastating outbreaks of the Black Death in medieval Europe, to the contemporary phenomenon of Ebola, the course focuses on the ways in which major outbreaks of infectious disease have shaped societies. The course considers the medical, social, economic, and political consequences of epidemics and pandemics. The course explores how various forms of plague were understood when they happened, and how our views of them have changed over time. This will be done by reading important works on plagues, and by examining original sources that were produced by those living through major disease outbreaks as they unfolded.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

115 NAZI GERMANY 
This course covers the history of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich (1933-1945) from the origins of the Nazi Party during the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) to the post-World War II trials of German war criminals.  Topics include Hitler’s life and career, the Nazi Party’s electoral success, the causes and course of World War II from the German perspective, the Holocaust, and the relations between the churches and the Nazi regime.  The course seeks to answer the question: why did Germans support Hitler? 
Three credit hours

116 THE DEVIL IN WESTERN SOCIETY: HISTORICAL THEMES
From Megiddo and Patmos, through the sewers of nineteenth-century Paris and into the studios of America’s televangelists, this course will examine how the figure of the devil has been made and remade over the centuries in response to broader historical trends. Topics may include: the ancient combat myth; the devil in the Christian scriptures; Satan and Lucifer; the devil and the saints; the idea of hell; monks and demons; demonic witchcraft; the development of exorcism; Protestant devils; the devil in art, literature and film; the demonization of outsiders; devils and the New World and Old; comedic devils; and the devil in the modern American consciousness.
Three credit hours

117 ROCK AND ROLL FROM PRESLEY TO PUNK:  HISTORICAL THEMES
This course explores the social, cultural, and political contexts for the evolution of rock and roll music during the post-Second World War era when a new musical form was grafted onto the popular music industry. Beginning with the roots of rock and roll music in African American communities, the course follows the progress of rock and roll music from the early 1950s to the Punk era of the late 1970s, focusing on the symbiotic relationship between iconic performers and their times.
Three credit hours, Lecture and Discussion

201 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 500 BC-1648
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the rise of classical Greece to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.  Lectures analyze the major political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped European society during this period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

202 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 1648 TO THE PRESENT
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the end of the Thirty Years’ War to the present. Lectures analyze the main political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped Europe from the early modern to the post-industrial period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the second year level.

211 THE HISTORY WORKSHOP: SKILLS AND METHODS IN HISTORY
This introductory course offers students the opportunity to develop their research, writing and critical thinking skills while introducing them to the nature of historical method and inquiry. The course provides instruction and practice in the use of standard print and electronic bibliographic tools and in the writing of research, analytical and critical papers in history. Topics of study include the relationship between history and truth, the uses of evidence and argumentation, and the varieties of historical research. The course features library workshops as well as experience using local archives. 
Lecture/Discussion/ Workshops: Three hours a week

215 FOREIGN FOODS: EATING IN THE AGE OF EMPIRES
Food has been understood in a variety of ways:   spices to preserve and mask rotting meats; sugar, chocolate and raisins as cure-alls; cocoa as a hallucinogen; potatoes as a plot to kill off surplus peasants; porridge as a middle-class conspiracy to undermine working-class culture.  In this course we use intrinsically interesting case studies to explore important themes in the history of food discovery, distribution, and consumption.  Underlying themes may include the use of unfree labour, the expansion of a capitalist economic system, the growth and evolution of European imperialism, and negotiations in social relations along class, gender, and racial/ethnic lines.
Three credit hours

222 FROM MAGIC TO THE DOUBLE HELIX: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course evaluates the history of science from the scientific revolution to late twentieth century. It also evaluates how science has been understood differently from one period to the next, how science has been grounded in cultural, social, and political currents, and how scientific understandings and perceptions have influenced how we see the world around us. This survey includes the study of major changes in scientific outlook brought about by thinkers like Isaac Newton, Auguste Comte, Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie and Albert Einstein. Important technological developments and the professionalization of scientific knowledge are also considered.
Three semester hours

231 THE ATLANTIC REGION
This course examines Atlantic Canada from the early interactions between the Mi’kmaq and Beothuk and the Europeans in the 16th century through to the middle of the 19th century when Atlantic Canadians adopted a modern vision of democratic culture and social improvement.  Topics of study will include native-newcomer interactions, the growth of Acadia and the Expulsion of the Acadians, the impact of the Planters and Loyalists, the Land Question on PEI, ethno-religious tension, social reform movements, and the question of Confederation.
Three hours a week

232 THE ATLANTIC REGION
A continuation of History 231.
Three hours a week

241 UNITED STATES HISTORY—FROM THE COLONIAL PERIOD TO RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in United States History begins with the Colonial period and concludes with an examination of the Civil War and Reconstruction. It covers a variety of topics in social, political, economic, diplomatic, military, and constitutional history.
Lecture: Three hours a week

242 UNITED STATES HISTORY SINCE RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in modern United States History examines industrial and urban development, modern political trends, social themes, and the development of the United States as a world power. Topics covered include Progressivism, the American role in World War I and World War II, the New Deal, and contemporary American society.
Lecture: Three hours a week

251 GREEK CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 101)

252 ROMAN CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 102)

261 BRITAIN IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS: 1688-1860
This course surveys the major political, social and cultural developments in British history from the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 to the age of the industrial revolution. Topics include the changing role of the monarchy, political patronage and social elites, crime and the law, radical political movements in the era of the French revolution, the growth of industrialization and its impact on working and living conditions, poverty and disease in Victorian cities, Irish nationalism, family life and “Victorian values,” and imperial conflicts in India and the Crimea.
Lecture: Three hours a week

262 RULE BRITANNIA TO COOL BRITANNIA: BRITAIN 1860-2000
This course surveys British political and social developments from the period of Victorian British imperialism to the era of “Swinging London” and “Cool Britannia” at the end of the 20th century. Topics include the advent of a democratic political system, the rise of the labour movement, suffragette protest, Irish nationalism, the repercussions of World Wars I and II, post-war popular culture, and the era of Thatcherism.
Lecture: Three hours a week

271 AUGUSTUS AND THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
(See Classics 312)

272 THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE, 284-410 AD
(See Classics 342)

291 INTRODUCTION TO WEST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 201)

292 INTRODUCTION TO EAST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 202)

303 POWER, CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION: THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
This course examines the period bounded by the Black Death and the Protestant Reformation. It explores the major political, intellectual and cultural developments in Renaissance Italy and their later translation to Northern Europe. Topics may include the place of Italy in the late medieval world; the causes and consequences of the crises of the fourteenth century; the emergence of humanism and the revival of antiquity; the relationship between culture and power; popular piety; new models of gender relations in Renaissance society; the impact of printing; and the unique shape of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Assignments will stress primary source analysis.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

305 MARTYRS, MARAUDERS, CLERICS AND KINGS: THE CULTURE OF THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES
This course traces the history of Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Black Death of the fourteenth century. Topics include the early history of Christianity and Islam, the Carolingian renaissance, the Viking invasions, the growth of the Papacy, the emergence of nation states, and the Crusades
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the third-year level.

310 TUDOR ENGLAND -1485-1603: CREATION OF A NATION
This course examines how the kings and queens of the Tudor dynasty transformed England from a crumbling, medieval monarchy into a powerful, centralized nation. It was a bloody process that saw thousands of English men and women lose their lives, but the result was an English nation endowed with a unique sense of identity, culture, and mission in the world. Topics include Henry VIII and the search for a legitimate heir; the Reformation in England; the evolution of queenship under Mary and Elizabeth; the ideological revolution and the problem of dissent; the changing structures of society; and the contrasting worlds of high and low culture.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

311 SCIENCE, MAGIC, WITCHCRAFT AND THE OCCULT IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This course investigates how men and women sought to understand, explain, control and manipulate the natural world in the early modern period. Topics include medieval cosmology and astrology; alchemy and learned magic; changing views of the role of the devil in the natural world; witch belief and witch hunting. Particular attention is paid to how the traditions of learned magic informed the development of science in the seventeenth century.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three semester hours of credit

312 THEMES AND DEBATES IN HISTORY
This course introduces students to some of the key theories and debates within current Western historiography (the study of historical writing). History is fundamentally concerned with the analysis of evidence, yet historians often disagree over the interpretation of that evidence and what is considered causally significant. This course will consider major “schools” and concepts of historical analysis that shape how history is interpreted. Topics may include the role of ideas and individuals versus broad economic and social forces; class, gender, race, post-colonialism, post-modernism, oral history, public history, and digital history.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week.

321 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE REFORMATION
This course examines the growth and development of Christianity prior to the Reformation. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between the growth of the Church and the broader historical context within which it occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 331)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

322 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE PRESENT
This course examines some of the principal developments within Christianity from the Reformation until the present. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between these developments and the broader historical context within which they occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 332)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

323 RUSSIAN HISTORY SINCE 1682
This course explores the political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural history of Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. It covers topics such as Russia’s rise as a European power in the 18th and 19th centuries, the development of Russian autocracy, the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, the history of the Soviet Union under Lenin and Stalin, the nationalities question, the collapse of communism, and Russia since Gorbachev.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

325 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY TO WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the day-to-day lives of Canadians within their respective communities to World War I. Topics of study may include native society, pioneering, immigration and outmigration, the Victorian frame of mind, industrialization and urbanization, social and ethnic groups, attitudes and mores, working conditions, reform, the arts, and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

326 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the lives of Canadians within their respective communities since World War I. Topics of study may include immigration and ethnicity, industrialization and urbanization, reform, labour, health, education, welfare, crime and punishment, the arts and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

327 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA I
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the mid-18th century and the First World War. Migrant groups studied include the Loyalists of the late 18th century, African Americans, the Irish Famine, and the Central and East Europeans.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

328 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA II
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the First World War and the present. Some of the migrants whose histories will be highlighted are Chinese and Japanese settlers in the west during the early 20th century, Jews, Italians, peoples from the Caribbean islands, and peoples from the Middle East.
PREREQUISITES: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

331 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island until 1864 emphasizes the French Regime, the development of colonial institutions, the struggle for the attainment of Responsible Government, and the influence of the land tenure system on the economic, political, and social development of the Island.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

332 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—POST-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island from 1864 until the present emphasizes the role of the Island in the Confederation movement, its entry into Confederation, and provincial-federal adjustments as they affected Prince Edward Island’s history.  It is recommended that History 331/332 be taken in sequence.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

333 HEALTH CARE AND NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course explores the history of health, disease and medicine, focussing on North America from the time of contact between Native Peoples and Europeans, to the present. The course is organized around four major themes in the history of health and illness: historical epidemiology, social and political responses to health and disease, the rise of modern medicine and other health care groups, and the recent challenges to regular medical practice by alternative health care providers. Particular attention is paid to the effects of shifting systems of medical practice on patient experience.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

341 GERMAN HISTORY SINCE 1648
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Thirty Years’ War, Austro-Prussian rivalry in the 18th century, German unification in the 19th Century, World War One, Hitler’s Third Reich, the division of Germany after 1945, and Germany since the collapse of communism.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

342 HISTORY OF FRANCE SINCE 1500
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of France since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Wars of Religion, the Age of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, Franco-German rivalry, the Dreyfus Affair, the Presidency of Charles DeGaulle, and the student revolts of 1968.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

352 THE HISTORY OF QUEBEC AND FRENCH CANADA
This course examines the social, economic and political history of Quebec. It examines economic development, political change, secularization, and the rise of nationalist and separatist movements. It also explores the changing relations between Quebec and prominent French Canadian communities else- where in Canada.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

353 CANADA AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
This course will examine the underlying causes of the First World War, the experiences of those who fought overseas, and the impact of war on the work and lives of those on the home front. Although the course will consider the international context of war, particular attention will be paid to the Canadian experience of the First World War, including the conscription controversy, post-war commemoration, and the legacy of the First World War for Canadian identity, politics, and culture in the twentieth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

362 VICTORIAN BRITAIN
This course explores themes in British social, political and cultural history in the nineteenth century. The course examines the nature of the changes sweeping British society, particularly those associated with Britain’s congested cities and the urban working class. The anxieties and fears generated by these changes will constitute the focus of this course. The course challenges many popular stereotypes of the “Victorian Age” through its exploration of family life, poverty, sexuality, crime, drugs, disease and death in the Victorian city.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

363 MODERN IRISH HISTORY
This course examines key developments in Irish history from the eighteenth century to the present. Drawing upon scholarly articles, visual images, song, film and documentary evidence, the course explores the various struggles over land, politics and culture that have shaped the past two centuries of Irish history. Two central themes that run through the course are the contested meanings of “the Irish nation” and the uses of history in contemporary commemoration and politics. The course concludes with an inquiry into the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland and the ongoing search for peace and political stability.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

371 THE ATLANTIC WORLD I
This course examines the emergence of an Atlantic world through the European “discovery,” conquest, and colonization of the Americas. The interaction of West African, Western European and Aboriginal American peoples, and the societies and institutions they developed, is the focus of the course. Spanish, English, French and Portuguese activity in the Atlantic and the Americas is surveyed, with particular attention given to topics such as labour systems, religious patterns, agriculture, and the nature of colonial societies before 1700.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

372 THE ATLANTIC WORLD II
This course traces the emergence of a maturing Atlantic world from the latter 1600s to the period of independence. The shape and interaction of the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and their colonial empires, together with the continuing relationship with African and Aboriginal American peoples, is the focus of study. Slavery, the plantation system, differing patterns of development, and political independence are given particular attention.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

373 THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN GLOBAL CONTEXT
This course combines lectures and class discussions and covers the history of the Second World War, its causes, conduct, and impact on twentieth century history. Topics include the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement in Germany; the international crises of the 1930s; the war on land, on sea, and in the air in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East; the Holocaust; the wartime conferences of Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt; the use of atomic weapons against Japan; the post-war Nuremberg Trials; the origins of the Cold War; and the impact of the war on society and the home front. 
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

375 TOURISM AND WESTERN SOCIETY: THE TRAVEL IMPERATIVE
This course will provide an historical overview of the evolution of tourism with special emphasis on the Western world, beginning with the medieval passion for pilgrimage through the Enlightenment Grand Tour to the birth of the modern tourist trade, one of the world's fastest growing industries. A series of case studies will be used to pursue specific topics, such as the economics of tourism, motivation for travel, the rise of the resort, the transportation revolution, promotion and imaging, the conflicted relationship between visitor and host, sustainability, and the social and cultural impacts of tourism on host societies.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

376 THE HISTORY OF GENOCIDE
This course covers the history of genocide as both a type of historical event and as a concept which has shaped international policy-making and legal practice.  Topics include the Holocaust, the Ukrainian Holomodor, the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the “Killing Fields” of Cambodia, the Armenian and Rwandan atrocities, and the life and career of Raphael Lemkin, who coined and defined the term.  The course seeks to answer the question: what is genocide and how does it differ from ordinary cruelty towards other human beings?    
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

378 THE MEDIEVAL BOOK
(See English 378)

385 WOMEN IN 19th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the changes that have taken place in the historical roles of women in Canadian society, and the relationship of these changes to social, economic, and intellectual developments. Using both a thematic and chronological approach, the course examines women’s roles from the beginning of the 19th Century to the achievement of suffrage in the 20th Century.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 385)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

386 WOMEN, THE LAW, AND CIVIL RIGHTS IN 20th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the experiences of women in 20th-Century Canadian society viewed through the prism of law and civil rights. Topics of study include the struggle for the right to vote, the Persons Case, efforts to secure equality in the workplace, the regulation of sexuality and reproduction, and the particular experiences of immigrant and Indigenous women in relation to civil rights.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 386)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

391 THE UNITED STATES FROM 1900 THROUGH WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics from the turn of the century through World War II. The course covers such topics as Populism, Progressivism, World War I, the “roaring 20s” and the “dirty 30s,” as well as World War II.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

392 THE UNITED STATES SINCE WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics since World War II. The course covers such topics as the Cold War, anti-Communist crusades, the evolution of the American welfare state, the civil rights movement, the war in Vietnam, and competing visions of America’s economic and political destiny.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

393 THE AMERICAN MIND AND IMAGINATION: FROM THE PURITANS TO THE PROGRESSIVES
This course examines the history of American thought from the Puritans to the Pragmatists. With an emphasis on religion, politics, and economics, it seeks to identify the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

394 20th-CENTURY AMERICAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
This course examines the history of American thought in the 20th century. It emphasizes religion, politics, and economics and includes an examination of major intellects from William James to Richard Rorty. It seeks to illuminate the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage in what has been coined “America’s Century.”
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

396 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY
This course provides an introduction to African-American history. Beginning with the introduction of slavery into the American colonies, it examines the journey from slavery to freedom, the limits to freedom, and the persistent struggle for civil rights in American society.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

397 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: THE HISPANIC-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE
This course provides an introduction to Hispanic-American history. Beginning with the Spanish conquest, this course ex- amines the struggle for independence, the American conquest, and the evolution of Chicano culture and La Raza as aspects of the persistent struggle for civil rights in America.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

404 “MONSTERS, GOLD, AND GLORY”:  TRAVEL, TRADE, AND THE PROBLEM OF DISCOVERY IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This advanced seminar examines European interaction with Asia and Africa from the time of Alexander the Great and the Ancient Greeks up to the formation of the large trading companies in the early 17th century, when Europeans understood the lands of the far east and south to be inhabited by strange semi-human peoples and the earth filled with gold and precious stones. This course examines the sources and evolution of this lore, noting how it affected the way explorers and merchant adventurers of the 16th century understood the world and interacted with the peoples they encountered. Topics include the development of the Greek and Roman world view; Europe’s experience with barbarism; the Pax Mongolica and the development of the medieval world system; medieval geography; the cartographic revolution; explanations of difference and the emergence of race; cross-cultural exchange; and hybridity.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

405 CRUSADES AND CRUSADING
This advanced seminar course examines the crusading movement of the High Middle Ages from both the Christian and Islamic perspective. Topics may include: the Reconquista; Urban II and the development of early crusading theory; Abbasid-Fatimid relations; the evolution of Christian notions of knighthood and the rise of the military orders; the development and application of Christian and Islamic notions of holy war; Crusading against Christians; the logistics of crusading; Christian-Muslim interaction in the Levant; and the counter- crusade under Salah al-Din and Sultan Baybars. Students will be expected to read and engage with a diverse assortment of primary sources, taken from both Christian and Islamic contexts.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

409 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the fourth year level.

411 EUROPE SINCE BISMARCK
This seminar course covers the social, political, economic, cultural, military, and diplomatic history of twentieth-century Europe from the age of nationalism in the late nineteenth century to the post-Cold War era of ethnic conflict and economic integration. Topics include imperialism, nationalism, World Wars One and Two, Nazism, decolonization, the Cold War, the European Union, the rise and fall of communism, the Balkan wars of the 1990s, globalization, and the rise of the New Right. Using a comparative perspective, the course examines what forces have united and divided Europe’s nations since the end of the nineteenth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

415 CANADA APOLOGIZES: STUDIES IN HISTORICAL APOLOGIES
This course considers the phenomenon of the historical apology in the modern Canadian context.  Students are introduced to a collection of historical events for which governments and churches have since offered official apologies for their participation.  Case studies include:  the imposition of the Chinese Head Tax, the denials of entries to the Komagata Maru and the S. S. St. Louis, the internment of the Japanese during World War II, the institutionalization of the Duplessis Orphans, the operation of Indian Residential Schools, the relocation of the Inuit, and the relocation of Africville.  This course poses these questions: is it possible to right the wrongs of the past, and to what extent do past wrongs belong to us.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

424 HISTORY OF CANADIAN NATIONALISM AND THE CANADIAN IDENTITY
This seminar course examines the development of Canadian nationalist thought and the evolution of the Canadian identity. Topics to be examined may include the evolution of national symbols, such as the Mountie, hockey, and the canoe, and their roles in the process of Canadian nation building and identity formation.  The course also examines the influence of the United States and Great Britain in shaping Canadian identity, and the promotion of a distinctive Canadian culture through a variety of media ranging from tourism pamphlets to the CBC.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar:  Three hours a week

425 CHILDHOOD IN MODERN CANADA
This is a seminar course in 19th- and 20th- Century Canadian social history which takes the experiences of children as its central focus. Themes of study may include the rise and decline of child labour, the development of education and child welfare systems, and changing ideas about childhood and the family.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

426 A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN WORKING CLASSES
From fur trader, to factory hand, to fast-food worker, this seminar course explores the historical experiences of working men, women and children in Canada. Topics of study may include early forms of labour, such as slavery; the industrial revolution and its effects on working class families; the growth of scientific management in the workplace; and the dislocations posed by the Great Depression and the growth of industrial legality. Working class culture, organization and resistance are considered, as are certain ideas about workers, such as the respectable worker and the “breadwinner.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

432 BRITAIN AND THE IMPERIAL EXPERIENCE
This advanced seminar course examines Britain’s experience of empire and imperialism from its days as a colony of the Roman Empire up to and including decolonisation in the twentieth century. Through a series of case studies and cross-cultural and trans-regional thematic comparisons, this course will introduce students to some of the main issues underlying the study of empire, colonialism and the relationship between coloniser and colonised in the British Empire. Topics may include: the ambiguous legacy of Rome; Wales, England’s first colonial experience; Ireland and the early pattern of imperialism; England and the Moghul Empire; England and the Caribbean; the rhetoric of Empire; Britain’s involvement in the scramble for Africa; the emergence of racial theory; the tools of imperial- ism; culture and imperialism; colonial resistance; decolonisation in South Asia and southern Africa; the post-colonial empire.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

434 MADNESS AND SOCIETY
This course examines the history of madness in comparative context from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present with a focus on Europe and North America. Topics include major historical developments in the understanding of madness such as traditional responses to unsoundness of mind, the development of asylums, the rise of professional psychiatry, scientific models of mental illness, and the community care movement. Pivotal theorists, including Freud, Kraepelin, Foucault, and Szasz are discussed.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

441 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY FROM THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD THROUGH WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from the American Revolution through World War I. Topics include neutrality, the changing role of the United States in foreign relations, the interaction between domestic and foreign policy, American expansionism, and political, economic, and cultural relationships between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

442 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from World War I through the end of the Cold War. Topics include the interwar years, the origins of World War II, post- war American hegemony, the Cold War, the New World Order, and political, economic, and cultural interaction between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

455 WAR AND REVOLUTION IN THE 20th CENTURY WORLD
This course examines the history of the world since the First World War. It explores crucial events such as the First and Second World Wars; communist revolution in countries such as Russia, China, Cambodia and Cuba; decolonization; the Korean conflict; war in southeast Asia; the Cold War; the collapse of communism in eastern Europe; and the Persian Gulf War. It also focuses on pivotal figures such as Lenin, Churchill, Hitler, Mao, Thatcher, De Gaulle, Gorbachev, and Castro.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

461 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT I
(See Economics 311)

462 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT II
(See Economics 312)

472 BRITAIN IN THE 20th CENTURY: SOCIETY, CULTURE AND IDENTITY
This course explores the construction of British national identities in the twentieth century, in particular how issues of class, gender, race and nationalism have been represented in popular culture. Topics may include the social impacts of World War I, the experience of the Depression era, British Fascist movements, the Blitz, post-war austerity, youth culture, multi-racial Britain, and football violence. Course materials include journalism of the period, film footage, oral history, diaries, pop music and contemporary cinema.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 474)
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

473 THE RISE OF CONSUMER SOCIETY: BRITISH SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY
This course examines the social and cultural changes brought about by the birth of a consumer society in 18th-century Britain. Topics include the rise of commercial society and consumerism, new techniques in marketing and advertising, the debate over fashion and luxury, the emergence of the public sphere of the coffeehouse, the commercialization of theatre and the art market, and the relationship between commerce, crime and punishment.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

483 THE HISTORY OF THE ENVIRONMENTALIST MOVEMENT
This seminar course covers the history of the environmentalist movement in the United States and Canada since its origins in the late nineteenth century. It describes the changes the movement has undergone thanks to its links to the conservation, eugenics, ecology, birth control, and population control movements. The course also focuses on the writings of key figures in the environmentalist movement, such as Paul Ehrlich, Barry Commoner, Rachel Carson, David Suzuki, and Bill McKibben, as well as the activities of organizations such as the Sierra Club, Zero Population Growth, and Earth First. Students seek to understand the nature of today’s environmentalism as a political, social, and cultural movement by examining what it has meant to earlier generations.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

484 APPLIED PUBLIC HISTORY
This course introduces students to both the field of public history and the application of history and historical methods in a variety of workplace settings. Public history, which involves the practice and presentation of history outside the academic setting, is the domain of a wide variety of practitioners. While the course deals primarily with the North American context, it also addresses questions of ethics, standards, and audience of broader interest to students of history.
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing in a history major or honours program, as well as permission of the department
Seminar/field work: Three hours a week and eight hours per week of unpaid field work in a public history workplace setting, supervised by a qualified professional acting as a mentor.
Semester hours of credit: 6

485 THE IDEAS THAT CHANGED MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY
This course covers the history of European ideas since the French Revolution and focuses on the main political ideologies that have arisen over the last two centuries. Topics include conservatism, liberalism, socialism, feminism, imperialism, nationalism, Soviet communism, and environmentalism. The course seeks to determine the fate of these ideologies as the twenty-first century unfolds.
Cross-listed with Political Science (cf. Political Science 436)
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

489 20th CENTURY PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
This course examines major economic, political, and cultural developments within Prince Edward Island during the 20th century. Topics include the effects of technological change; Maritime Union; federal-provincial relations, including transfer payments and the 15-year Comprehensive Development Plan; “Rural Renaissance”; the constitutional discussions of the 1980s and 1990s; and the debate surrounding construction of the “fixed link.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

491-492 DIRECTED STUDIES
These tutorial courses are intended to encourage independent initiative and study on the part of the student. Reading and research are conducted within specialized areas chosen by the student in close consultation with one or more members of the Department. This course is restricted to qualified Third and Fourth Year students in any discipline.

Canadian
The possible areas of study are:
The History of Canadian Native Peoples
Western Canadian History Canadian Social History Canadian Women’s History
Folk History of Prince Edward Island
PEI Social and Cultural
Atlantic Region Social and Cultural

American:
U.S. Foreign Policy, 20th-Century
18th-, 19th-, and 20th-Century America
Canadian-American Relations
Colonial Societies

British and European:
British History
British Social and Cultural History
Western and Central Europe
European, Medieval, Modern, and Intellectual History Early Modern Europe—Social and Cultural History Gender in British and European History
History of Religion
See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.

493 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 431 (with approval of History Chair))

494 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 432 (with approval of History Chair))

HONOURS COURSES

These courses are restricted to students registered in the History Honours Program. For regulations see above.

497 HONOURS TUTORIAL IN HISTORIOGRAPHY
This is an intensive reading and tutorial course in selected fields offered by the Department. Students should consult with the honours advisor in planning this course. The course normally centres on the historiography of the broad area in which the student’s graduating essay is prepared.
Tutorial: Three hours a week

498 HONOURS GRADUATING ESSAY
Students propose, research, and write a major research essay under the supervision of a tutor from the Department. The essay is the subject of a final oral examination. The oral examination committee consists of the major tutor, one additional member from the Department of History, and a faculty member from another Department of the University.
Tutorial: Three semester hours of credit
 

Calendar Courses

100 Level

101 CANADIAN HISTORY—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history up to and including the attainment of Confederation. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

102 CANADIAN HISTORY—POST-CONFEDERATION
This course surveys topics of historical importance in Canadian history in the Post-Confederation period. The emphasis is on the interaction between political events and change in the economy and society. Tutorials examine various historical interpretations of the Canadian experience.
Lecture: Two hours a week
Tutorial: One hour a week

103 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART I
(See Fine Arts History 101)

104 INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF WESTERN ART II
(See Fine Arts History 102)

111 DISCOVERING THE PAST
This course is a unique and exciting chance for students to work closely with each other and with a professor in a seminar, applying the techniques of historical investigation to shed light on one particular issue. These techniques include; the careful analysis of primary sources; an appreciation that there are different historical interpretations of the same subject; an understanding of how the subject under investigation changes over time. Instead of regular lectures, in each class students work through a series of carefully selected readings which forms the basis for interactive discussions. Each year, the seminar is devoted to a different historical issue, and is led by a different professor from the History department. Read more

113 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course provides an introduction to changing ideas and practices surrounding crime and punishment over time. Topics may include who has been identified as a threat to the social order, including thieves, prostitutes, vagrants, and young offenders, and the punishments that societies have deemed appropriate for criminals, including public executions, exile, and imprisonment. Additionally, the course provides opportunities to explore and to develop skills in historical thinking and methods.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

114 PLAGUE: HISTORICAL THEMES
This course introduces students to plague, an important
 aspect of disease and health history. From the devastating outbreaks of the Black Death in medieval Europe, to the contemporary phenomenon of Ebola, the course focuses on the ways in which major outbreaks of infectious disease have shaped societies. The course considers the medical, social, economic, and political consequences of epidemics and pandemics. The course explores how various forms of plague were understood when they happened, and how our views of them have changed over time. This will be done by reading important works on plagues, and by examining original sources that were produced by those living through major disease outbreaks as they unfolded.
Three credit hours; lecture, discussion

115 NAZI GERMANY 
This course covers the history of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich (1933-1945) from the origins of the Nazi Party during the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) to the post-World War II trials of German war criminals.  Topics include Hitler’s life and career, the Nazi Party’s electoral success, the causes and course of World War II from the German perspective, the Holocaust, and the relations between the churches and the Nazi regime.  The course seeks to answer the question: why did Germans support Hitler? 
Three credit hours

116 THE DEVIL IN WESTERN SOCIETY: HISTORICAL THEMES
From Megiddo and Patmos, through the sewers of nineteenth-century Paris and into the studios of America’s televangelists, this course will examine how the figure of the devil has been made and remade over the centuries in response to broader historical trends. Topics may include: the ancient combat myth; the devil in the Christian scriptures; Satan and Lucifer; the devil and the saints; the idea of hell; monks and demons; demonic witchcraft; the development of exorcism; Protestant devils; the devil in art, literature and film; the demonization of outsiders; devils and the New World and Old; comedic devils; and the devil in the modern American consciousness.
Three credit hours

117 ROCK AND ROLL FROM PRESLEY TO PUNK:  HISTORICAL THEMES
This course explores the social, cultural, and political contexts for the evolution of rock and roll music during the post-Second World War era when a new musical form was grafted onto the popular music industry. Beginning with the roots of rock and roll music in African American communities, the course follows the progress of rock and roll music from the early 1950s to the Punk era of the late 1970s, focusing on the symbiotic relationship between iconic performers and their times.
Three credit hours, Lecture and Discussion

200 Level

201 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 500 BC-1648
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the rise of classical Greece to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.  Lectures analyze the major political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped European society during this period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

202 EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION 1648 TO THE PRESENT
This introductory course examines the history of European civilization from the end of the Thirty Years’ War to the present. Lectures analyze the main political, economic, social, and cultural forces which shaped Europe from the early modern to the post-industrial period.
Lecture: Three hours a week

209 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the second year level.

211 THE HISTORY WORKSHOP: SKILLS AND METHODS IN HISTORY
This introductory course offers students the opportunity to develop their research, writing and critical thinking skills while introducing them to the nature of historical method and inquiry. The course provides instruction and practice in the use of standard print and electronic bibliographic tools and in the writing of research, analytical and critical papers in history. Topics of study include the relationship between history and truth, the uses of evidence and argumentation, and the varieties of historical research. The course features library workshops as well as experience using local archives. 
Lecture/Discussion/ Workshops: Three hours a week

215 FOREIGN FOODS: EATING IN THE AGE OF EMPIRES
Food has been understood in a variety of ways:   spices to preserve and mask rotting meats; sugar, chocolate and raisins as cure-alls; cocoa as a hallucinogen; potatoes as a plot to kill off surplus peasants; porridge as a middle-class conspiracy to undermine working-class culture.  In this course we use intrinsically interesting case studies to explore important themes in the history of food discovery, distribution, and consumption.  Underlying themes may include the use of unfree labour, the expansion of a capitalist economic system, the growth and evolution of European imperialism, and negotiations in social relations along class, gender, and racial/ethnic lines.
Three credit hours

222 FROM MAGIC TO THE DOUBLE HELIX: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course evaluates the history of science from the scientific revolution to late twentieth century. It also evaluates how science has been understood differently from one period to the next, how science has been grounded in cultural, social, and political currents, and how scientific understandings and perceptions have influenced how we see the world around us. This survey includes the study of major changes in scientific outlook brought about by thinkers like Isaac Newton, Auguste Comte, Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie and Albert Einstein. Important technological developments and the professionalization of scientific knowledge are also considered.
Three semester hours

231 THE ATLANTIC REGION
This course examines Atlantic Canada from the early interactions between the Mi’kmaq and Beothuk and the Europeans in the 16th century through to the middle of the 19th century when Atlantic Canadians adopted a modern vision of democratic culture and social improvement.  Topics of study will include native-newcomer interactions, the growth of Acadia and the Expulsion of the Acadians, the impact of the Planters and Loyalists, the Land Question on PEI, ethno-religious tension, social reform movements, and the question of Confederation.
Three hours a week

232 THE ATLANTIC REGION
A continuation of History 231.
Three hours a week

241 UNITED STATES HISTORY—FROM THE COLONIAL PERIOD TO RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in United States History begins with the Colonial period and concludes with an examination of the Civil War and Reconstruction. It covers a variety of topics in social, political, economic, diplomatic, military, and constitutional history.
Lecture: Three hours a week

242 UNITED STATES HISTORY SINCE RECONSTRUCTION
This survey course in modern United States History examines industrial and urban development, modern political trends, social themes, and the development of the United States as a world power. Topics covered include Progressivism, the American role in World War I and World War II, the New Deal, and contemporary American society.
Lecture: Three hours a week

251 GREEK CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 101)

252 ROMAN CIVILIZATION
(See Classics 102)

261 BRITAIN IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS: 1688-1860
This course surveys the major political, social and cultural developments in British history from the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 to the age of the industrial revolution. Topics include the changing role of the monarchy, political patronage and social elites, crime and the law, radical political movements in the era of the French revolution, the growth of industrialization and its impact on working and living conditions, poverty and disease in Victorian cities, Irish nationalism, family life and “Victorian values,” and imperial conflicts in India and the Crimea.
Lecture: Three hours a week

262 RULE BRITANNIA TO COOL BRITANNIA: BRITAIN 1860-2000
This course surveys British political and social developments from the period of Victorian British imperialism to the era of “Swinging London” and “Cool Britannia” at the end of the 20th century. Topics include the advent of a democratic political system, the rise of the labour movement, suffragette protest, Irish nationalism, the repercussions of World Wars I and II, post-war popular culture, and the era of Thatcherism.
Lecture: Three hours a week

271 AUGUSTUS AND THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
(See Classics 312)

272 THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE, 284-410 AD
(See Classics 342)

291 INTRODUCTION TO WEST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 201)

292 INTRODUCTION TO EAST ASIA
(See Asian Studies 202)

300 Level

303 POWER, CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION: THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
This course examines the period bounded by the Black Death and the Protestant Reformation. It explores the major political, intellectual and cultural developments in Renaissance Italy and their later translation to Northern Europe. Topics may include the place of Italy in the late medieval world; the causes and consequences of the crises of the fourteenth century; the emergence of humanism and the revival of antiquity; the relationship between culture and power; popular piety; new models of gender relations in Renaissance society; the impact of printing; and the unique shape of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Assignments will stress primary source analysis.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

305 MARTYRS, MARAUDERS, CLERICS AND KINGS: THE CULTURE OF THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES
This course traces the history of Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Black Death of the fourteenth century. Topics include the early history of Christianity and Islam, the Carolingian renaissance, the Viking invasions, the growth of the Papacy, the emergence of nation states, and the Crusades
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

309 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the third-year level.

310 TUDOR ENGLAND -1485-1603: CREATION OF A NATION
This course examines how the kings and queens of the Tudor dynasty transformed England from a crumbling, medieval monarchy into a powerful, centralized nation. It was a bloody process that saw thousands of English men and women lose their lives, but the result was an English nation endowed with a unique sense of identity, culture, and mission in the world. Topics include Henry VIII and the search for a legitimate heir; the Reformation in England; the evolution of queenship under Mary and Elizabeth; the ideological revolution and the problem of dissent; the changing structures of society; and the contrasting worlds of high and low culture.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

311 SCIENCE, MAGIC, WITCHCRAFT AND THE OCCULT IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This course investigates how men and women sought to understand, explain, control and manipulate the natural world in the early modern period. Topics include medieval cosmology and astrology; alchemy and learned magic; changing views of the role of the devil in the natural world; witch belief and witch hunting. Particular attention is paid to how the traditions of learned magic informed the development of science in the seventeenth century.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three semester hours of credit

312 THEMES AND DEBATES IN HISTORY
This course introduces students to some of the key theories and debates within current Western historiography (the study of historical writing). History is fundamentally concerned with the analysis of evidence, yet historians often disagree over the interpretation of that evidence and what is considered causally significant. This course will consider major “schools” and concepts of historical analysis that shape how history is interpreted. Topics may include the role of ideas and individuals versus broad economic and social forces; class, gender, race, post-colonialism, post-modernism, oral history, public history, and digital history.
PREREQUISITE:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week.

321 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE REFORMATION
This course examines the growth and development of Christianity prior to the Reformation. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between the growth of the Church and the broader historical context within which it occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 331)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

322 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE PRESENT
This course examines some of the principal developments within Christianity from the Reformation until the present. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between these developments and the broader historical context within which they occurred.
Cross-listed with Religious Studies (cf. Religious Studies 332)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

323 RUSSIAN HISTORY SINCE 1682
This course explores the political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural history of Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. It covers topics such as Russia’s rise as a European power in the 18th and 19th centuries, the development of Russian autocracy, the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, the history of the Soviet Union under Lenin and Stalin, the nationalities question, the collapse of communism, and Russia since Gorbachev.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

325 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY TO WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the day-to-day lives of Canadians within their respective communities to World War I. Topics of study may include native society, pioneering, immigration and outmigration, the Victorian frame of mind, industrialization and urbanization, social and ethnic groups, attitudes and mores, working conditions, reform, the arts, and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

326 CANADIAN SOCIAL HISTORY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course focuses on selected themes in the lives of Canadians within their respective communities since World War I. Topics of study may include immigration and ethnicity, industrialization and urbanization, reform, labour, health, education, welfare, crime and punishment, the arts and recreation.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

327 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA I
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the mid-18th century and the First World War. Migrant groups studied include the Loyalists of the late 18th century, African Americans, the Irish Famine, and the Central and East Europeans.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

328 MIGRATIONS TO CANADA II
This course explores the history of Canadian migrations between the First World War and the present. Some of the migrants whose histories will be highlighted are Chinese and Japanese settlers in the west during the early 20th century, Jews, Italians, peoples from the Caribbean islands, and peoples from the Middle East.
PREREQUISITES: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

331 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—PRE-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island until 1864 emphasizes the French Regime, the development of colonial institutions, the struggle for the attainment of Responsible Government, and the influence of the land tenure system on the economic, political, and social development of the Island.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

332 HISTORY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND—POST-CONFEDERATION
This study of Prince Edward Island from 1864 until the present emphasizes the role of the Island in the Confederation movement, its entry into Confederation, and provincial-federal adjustments as they affected Prince Edward Island’s history.  It is recommended that History 331/332 be taken in sequence.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

333 HEALTH CARE AND NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
This course explores the history of health, disease and medicine, focussing on North America from the time of contact between Native Peoples and Europeans, to the present. The course is organized around four major themes in the history of health and illness: historical epidemiology, social and political responses to health and disease, the rise of modern medicine and other health care groups, and the recent challenges to regular medical practice by alternative health care providers. Particular attention is paid to the effects of shifting systems of medical practice on patient experience.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

341 GERMAN HISTORY SINCE 1648
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Thirty Years’ War, Austro-Prussian rivalry in the 18th century, German unification in the 19th Century, World War One, Hitler’s Third Reich, the division of Germany after 1945, and Germany since the collapse of communism.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

342 HISTORY OF FRANCE SINCE 1500
This course covers the political, diplomatic, social, economic, and cultural history of France since the Reformation. It explores topics such as the Wars of Religion, the Age of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, Franco-German rivalry, the Dreyfus Affair, the Presidency of Charles DeGaulle, and the student revolts of 1968.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

352 THE HISTORY OF QUEBEC AND FRENCH CANADA
This course examines the social, economic and political history of Quebec. It examines economic development, political change, secularization, and the rise of nationalist and separatist movements. It also explores the changing relations between Quebec and prominent French Canadian communities else- where in Canada.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

353 CANADA AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
This course will examine the underlying causes of the First World War, the experiences of those who fought overseas, and the impact of war on the work and lives of those on the home front. Although the course will consider the international context of war, particular attention will be paid to the Canadian experience of the First World War, including the conscription controversy, post-war commemoration, and the legacy of the First World War for Canadian identity, politics, and culture in the twentieth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

362 VICTORIAN BRITAIN
This course explores themes in British social, political and cultural history in the nineteenth century. The course examines the nature of the changes sweeping British society, particularly those associated with Britain’s congested cities and the urban working class. The anxieties and fears generated by these changes will constitute the focus of this course. The course challenges many popular stereotypes of the “Victorian Age” through its exploration of family life, poverty, sexuality, crime, drugs, disease and death in the Victorian city.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

363 MODERN IRISH HISTORY
This course examines key developments in Irish history from the eighteenth century to the present. Drawing upon scholarly articles, visual images, song, film and documentary evidence, the course explores the various struggles over land, politics and culture that have shaped the past two centuries of Irish history. Two central themes that run through the course are the contested meanings of “the Irish nation” and the uses of history in contemporary commemoration and politics. The course concludes with an inquiry into the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland and the ongoing search for peace and political stability.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

371 THE ATLANTIC WORLD I
This course examines the emergence of an Atlantic world through the European “discovery,” conquest, and colonization of the Americas. The interaction of West African, Western European and Aboriginal American peoples, and the societies and institutions they developed, is the focus of the course. Spanish, English, French and Portuguese activity in the Atlantic and the Americas is surveyed, with particular attention given to topics such as labour systems, religious patterns, agriculture, and the nature of colonial societies before 1700.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

372 THE ATLANTIC WORLD II
This course traces the emergence of a maturing Atlantic world from the latter 1600s to the period of independence. The shape and interaction of the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese and their colonial empires, together with the continuing relationship with African and Aboriginal American peoples, is the focus of study. Slavery, the plantation system, differing patterns of development, and political independence are given particular attention.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

373 THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN GLOBAL CONTEXT
This course combines lectures and class discussions and covers the history of the Second World War, its causes, conduct, and impact on twentieth century history. Topics include the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement in Germany; the international crises of the 1930s; the war on land, on sea, and in the air in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East; the Holocaust; the wartime conferences of Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt; the use of atomic weapons against Japan; the post-war Nuremberg Trials; the origins of the Cold War; and the impact of the war on society and the home front. 
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

375 TOURISM AND WESTERN SOCIETY: THE TRAVEL IMPERATIVE
This course will provide an historical overview of the evolution of tourism with special emphasis on the Western world, beginning with the medieval passion for pilgrimage through the Enlightenment Grand Tour to the birth of the modern tourist trade, one of the world's fastest growing industries. A series of case studies will be used to pursue specific topics, such as the economics of tourism, motivation for travel, the rise of the resort, the transportation revolution, promotion and imaging, the conflicted relationship between visitor and host, sustainability, and the social and cultural impacts of tourism on host societies.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

376 THE HISTORY OF GENOCIDE
This course covers the history of genocide as both a type of historical event and as a concept which has shaped international policy-making and legal practice.  Topics include the Holocaust, the Ukrainian Holomodor, the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the “Killing Fields” of Cambodia, the Armenian and Rwandan atrocities, and the life and career of Raphael Lemkin, who coined and defined the term.  The course seeks to answer the question: what is genocide and how does it differ from ordinary cruelty towards other human beings?    
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

378 THE MEDIEVAL BOOK
(See English 378)

385 WOMEN IN 19th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the changes that have taken place in the historical roles of women in Canadian society, and the relationship of these changes to social, economic, and intellectual developments. Using both a thematic and chronological approach, the course examines women’s roles from the beginning of the 19th Century to the achievement of suffrage in the 20th Century.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 385)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

386 WOMEN, THE LAW, AND CIVIL RIGHTS IN 20th-CENTURY CANADA
This course examines the experiences of women in 20th-Century Canadian society viewed through the prism of law and civil rights. Topics of study include the struggle for the right to vote, the Persons Case, efforts to secure equality in the workplace, the regulation of sexuality and reproduction, and the particular experiences of immigrant and Indigenous women in relation to civil rights.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 386)
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Discussion: Three hours a week

391 THE UNITED STATES FROM 1900 THROUGH WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics from the turn of the century through World War II. The course covers such topics as Populism, Progressivism, World War I, the “roaring 20s” and the “dirty 30s,” as well as World War II.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

392 THE UNITED STATES SINCE WORLD WAR II
This course examines developments in American society and politics since World War II. The course covers such topics as the Cold War, anti-Communist crusades, the evolution of the American welfare state, the civil rights movement, the war in Vietnam, and competing visions of America’s economic and political destiny.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

393 THE AMERICAN MIND AND IMAGINATION: FROM THE PURITANS TO THE PROGRESSIVES
This course examines the history of American thought from the Puritans to the Pragmatists. With an emphasis on religion, politics, and economics, it seeks to identify the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

394 20th-CENTURY AMERICAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
This course examines the history of American thought in the 20th century. It emphasizes religion, politics, and economics and includes an examination of major intellects from William James to Richard Rorty. It seeks to illuminate the principal forces, ideas, and traditions affecting the development of a distinctive American intellectual culture and heritage in what has been coined “America’s Century.”
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

396 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY
This course provides an introduction to African-American history. Beginning with the introduction of slavery into the American colonies, it examines the journey from slavery to freedom, the limits to freedom, and the persistent struggle for civil rights in American society.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

397 RACE & ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN LIFE: THE HISPANIC-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE
This course provides an introduction to Hispanic-American history. Beginning with the Spanish conquest, this course ex- amines the struggle for independence, the American conquest, and the evolution of Chicano culture and La Raza as aspects of the persistent struggle for civil rights in America.
PREREQUISITES:  Second year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture/Seminar: Three hours a week

400 Level

404 “MONSTERS, GOLD, AND GLORY”:  TRAVEL, TRADE, AND THE PROBLEM OF DISCOVERY IN PREMODERN EUROPE
This advanced seminar examines European interaction with Asia and Africa from the time of Alexander the Great and the Ancient Greeks up to the formation of the large trading companies in the early 17th century, when Europeans understood the lands of the far east and south to be inhabited by strange semi-human peoples and the earth filled with gold and precious stones. This course examines the sources and evolution of this lore, noting how it affected the way explorers and merchant adventurers of the 16th century understood the world and interacted with the peoples they encountered. Topics include the development of the Greek and Roman world view; Europe’s experience with barbarism; the Pax Mongolica and the development of the medieval world system; medieval geography; the cartographic revolution; explanations of difference and the emergence of race; cross-cultural exchange; and hybridity.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

405 CRUSADES AND CRUSADING
This advanced seminar course examines the crusading movement of the High Middle Ages from both the Christian and Islamic perspective. Topics may include: the Reconquista; Urban II and the development of early crusading theory; Abbasid-Fatimid relations; the evolution of Christian notions of knighthood and the rise of the military orders; the development and application of Christian and Islamic notions of holy war; Crusading against Christians; the logistics of crusading; Christian-Muslim interaction in the Levant; and the counter- crusade under Salah al-Din and Sultan Baybars. Students will be expected to read and engage with a diverse assortment of primary sources, taken from both Christian and Islamic contexts.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

409 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for Special Topics offered by the Department of History at the fourth year level.

411 EUROPE SINCE BISMARCK
This seminar course covers the social, political, economic, cultural, military, and diplomatic history of twentieth-century Europe from the age of nationalism in the late nineteenth century to the post-Cold War era of ethnic conflict and economic integration. Topics include imperialism, nationalism, World Wars One and Two, Nazism, decolonization, the Cold War, the European Union, the rise and fall of communism, the Balkan wars of the 1990s, globalization, and the rise of the New Right. Using a comparative perspective, the course examines what forces have united and divided Europe’s nations since the end of the nineteenth century.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor

415 CANADA APOLOGIZES: STUDIES IN HISTORICAL APOLOGIES
This course considers the phenomenon of the historical apology in the modern Canadian context.  Students are introduced to a collection of historical events for which governments and churches have since offered official apologies for their participation.  Case studies include:  the imposition of the Chinese Head Tax, the denials of entries to the Komagata Maru and the S. S. St. Louis, the internment of the Japanese during World War II, the institutionalization of the Duplessis Orphans, the operation of Indian Residential Schools, the relocation of the Inuit, and the relocation of Africville.  This course poses these questions: is it possible to right the wrongs of the past, and to what extent do past wrongs belong to us.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Three credit hours

424 HISTORY OF CANADIAN NATIONALISM AND THE CANADIAN IDENTITY
This seminar course examines the development of Canadian nationalist thought and the evolution of the Canadian identity. Topics to be examined may include the evolution of national symbols, such as the Mountie, hockey, and the canoe, and their roles in the process of Canadian nation building and identity formation.  The course also examines the influence of the United States and Great Britain in shaping Canadian identity, and the promotion of a distinctive Canadian culture through a variety of media ranging from tourism pamphlets to the CBC.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar:  Three hours a week

425 CHILDHOOD IN MODERN CANADA
This is a seminar course in 19th- and 20th- Century Canadian social history which takes the experiences of children as its central focus. Themes of study may include the rise and decline of child labour, the development of education and child welfare systems, and changing ideas about childhood and the family.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

426 A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN WORKING CLASSES
From fur trader, to factory hand, to fast-food worker, this seminar course explores the historical experiences of working men, women and children in Canada. Topics of study may include early forms of labour, such as slavery; the industrial revolution and its effects on working class families; the growth of scientific management in the workplace; and the dislocations posed by the Great Depression and the growth of industrial legality. Working class culture, organization and resistance are considered, as are certain ideas about workers, such as the respectable worker and the “breadwinner.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

432 BRITAIN AND THE IMPERIAL EXPERIENCE
This advanced seminar course examines Britain’s experience of empire and imperialism from its days as a colony of the Roman Empire up to and including decolonisation in the twentieth century. Through a series of case studies and cross-cultural and trans-regional thematic comparisons, this course will introduce students to some of the main issues underlying the study of empire, colonialism and the relationship between coloniser and colonised in the British Empire. Topics may include: the ambiguous legacy of Rome; Wales, England’s first colonial experience; Ireland and the early pattern of imperialism; England and the Moghul Empire; England and the Caribbean; the rhetoric of Empire; Britain’s involvement in the scramble for Africa; the emergence of racial theory; the tools of imperial- ism; culture and imperialism; colonial resistance; decolonisation in South Asia and southern Africa; the post-colonial empire.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

434 MADNESS AND SOCIETY
This course examines the history of madness in comparative context from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present with a focus on Europe and North America. Topics include major historical developments in the understanding of madness such as traditional responses to unsoundness of mind, the development of asylums, the rise of professional psychiatry, scientific models of mental illness, and the community care movement. Pivotal theorists, including Freud, Kraepelin, Foucault, and Szasz are discussed.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Lecture: Three hours a week

441 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY FROM THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD THROUGH WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from the American Revolution through World War I. Topics include neutrality, the changing role of the United States in foreign relations, the interaction between domestic and foreign policy, American expansionism, and political, economic, and cultural relationships between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

442 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY SINCE WORLD WAR I
This course examines the evolution of American foreign policy from World War I through the end of the Cold War. Topics include the interwar years, the origins of World War II, post- war American hegemony, the Cold War, the New World Order, and political, economic, and cultural interaction between the United States and other countries and peoples.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

455 WAR AND REVOLUTION IN THE 20th CENTURY WORLD
This course examines the history of the world since the First World War. It explores crucial events such as the First and Second World Wars; communist revolution in countries such as Russia, China, Cambodia and Cuba; decolonization; the Korean conflict; war in southeast Asia; the Cold War; the collapse of communism in eastern Europe; and the Persian Gulf War. It also focuses on pivotal figures such as Lenin, Churchill, Hitler, Mao, Thatcher, De Gaulle, Gorbachev, and Castro.
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

461 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT I
(See Economics 311)

462 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT II
(See Economics 312)

472 BRITAIN IN THE 20th CENTURY: SOCIETY, CULTURE AND IDENTITY
This course explores the construction of British national identities in the twentieth century, in particular how issues of class, gender, race and nationalism have been represented in popular culture. Topics may include the social impacts of World War I, the experience of the Depression era, British Fascist movements, the Blitz, post-war austerity, youth culture, multi-racial Britain, and football violence. Course materials include journalism of the period, film footage, oral history, diaries, pop music and contemporary cinema.
Cross-listed with Diversity and Social Justice Studies (cf. DSJS 474)
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

473 THE RISE OF CONSUMER SOCIETY: BRITISH SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY
This course examines the social and cultural changes brought about by the birth of a consumer society in 18th-century Britain. Topics include the rise of commercial society and consumerism, new techniques in marketing and advertising, the debate over fashion and luxury, the emergence of the public sphere of the coffeehouse, the commercialization of theatre and the art market, and the relationship between commerce, crime and punishment.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

483 THE HISTORY OF THE ENVIRONMENTALIST MOVEMENT
This seminar course covers the history of the environmentalist movement in the United States and Canada since its origins in the late nineteenth century. It describes the changes the movement has undergone thanks to its links to the conservation, eugenics, ecology, birth control, and population control movements. The course also focuses on the writings of key figures in the environmentalist movement, such as Paul Ehrlich, Barry Commoner, Rachel Carson, David Suzuki, and Bill McKibben, as well as the activities of organizations such as the Sierra Club, Zero Population Growth, and Earth First. Students seek to understand the nature of today’s environmentalism as a political, social, and cultural movement by examining what it has meant to earlier generations.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

484 APPLIED PUBLIC HISTORY
This course introduces students to both the field of public history and the application of history and historical methods in a variety of workplace settings. Public history, which involves the practice and presentation of history outside the academic setting, is the domain of a wide variety of practitioners. While the course deals primarily with the North American context, it also addresses questions of ethics, standards, and audience of broader interest to students of history.
PREREQUISITE: Third or fourth year standing in a history major or honours program, as well as permission of the department
Seminar/field work: Three hours a week and eight hours per week of unpaid field work in a public history workplace setting, supervised by a qualified professional acting as a mentor.
Semester hours of credit: 6

485 THE IDEAS THAT CHANGED MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY
This course covers the history of European ideas since the French Revolution and focuses on the main political ideologies that have arisen over the last two centuries. Topics include conservatism, liberalism, socialism, feminism, imperialism, nationalism, Soviet communism, and environmentalism. The course seeks to determine the fate of these ideologies as the twenty-first century unfolds.
Cross-listed with Political Science (cf. Political Science 436)
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

489 20th CENTURY PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
This course examines major economic, political, and cultural developments within Prince Edward Island during the 20th century. Topics include the effects of technological change; Maritime Union; federal-provincial relations, including transfer payments and the 15-year Comprehensive Development Plan; “Rural Renaissance”; the constitutional discussions of the 1980s and 1990s; and the debate surrounding construction of the “fixed link.”
PREREQUISITES:  Third year standing or above, or permission of the instructor
Seminar: Three hours a week

491-492 DIRECTED STUDIES
These tutorial courses are intended to encourage independent initiative and study on the part of the student. Reading and research are conducted within specialized areas chosen by the student in close consultation with one or more members of the Department. This course is restricted to qualified Third and Fourth Year students in any discipline.

Canadian
The possible areas of study are:
The History of Canadian Native Peoples
Western Canadian History Canadian Social History Canadian Women’s History
Folk History of Prince Edward Island
PEI Social and Cultural
Atlantic Region Social and Cultural

American:
U.S. Foreign Policy, 20th-Century
18th-, 19th-, and 20th-Century America
Canadian-American Relations
Colonial Societies

British and European:
British History
British Social and Cultural History
Western and Central Europe
European, Medieval, Modern, and Intellectual History Early Modern Europe—Social and Cultural History Gender in British and European History
History of Religion
See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.

493 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 431 (with approval of History Chair))

494 DIRECTED STUDIES (CLASSICS)
(See Classics 432 (with approval of History Chair))

HONOURS COURSES

These courses are restricted to students registered in the History Honours Program. For regulations see above.

497 HONOURS TUTORIAL IN HISTORIOGRAPHY
This is an intensive reading and tutorial course in selected fields offered by the Department. Students should consult with the honours advisor in planning this course. The course normally centres on the historiography of the broad area in which the student’s graduating essay is prepared.
Tutorial: Three hours a week

498 HONOURS GRADUATING ESSAY
Students propose, research, and write a major research essay under the supervision of a tutor from the Department. The essay is the subject of a final oral examination. The oral examination committee consists of the major tutor, one additional member from the Department of History, and a faculty member from another Department of the University.
Tutorial: Three semester hours of credit
 

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