Both large and small animals with a variety of disorders benefit from acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture is presently considered a reasonable alternative in cases where conventional methods of treatment have failed, the animal owner is unable to afford more costly treatment, or is reluctant to make use of prolonged (lifetime) drug therapy. Specific examples of conditions seen in dogs which often respond to acupuncture treatment include the chronic pain of hip dysplasia, back pain from intervertebral disk disease, epilepsy, and the malaise which accompanies chemotherapy in cancer patients. Conditions often seen in horses which may respond to acupuncture include lower back pain, laminitis, and heaves. Certain types of compulsive behavior problems seen in both dogs and horses may respond to acupuncture therapy.