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Careers:

- Physicist
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- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

A cornerstone in the natural sciences and a foundation for research and development in the high-tech sector, physics is an exciting and rewarding field of study. It explores many of the deeper mysteries of the universe and can lead to a wide range of intriguing career and employment opportunities.

Dr. William M. Whelan, Chair

Department of Physics

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Careers:

- Physicist
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- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

The Honours program in Physics is intended to provide research experience at the undergraduate level. It is designed for students who are interested in continuing their studies at the graduate level in Physics or related fields, or who are planning careers where research experience would be an asset.

The Honours program comprises a total of 126 semester hours of course credit, including a research project worth 12 semester hours. A total of at least 60 semester hours of Physics is required (16 courses plus project).

The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended electives.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3010
- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4020
- Physics 4120
- Physics 4210
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics 4900
- Mathematics 3010
- Mathematics 3310, 4710, or 4720
- Electives, at least one of which must be an additional Physics course at the 3000 level or above (21 semester hours)

**ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS**

For admission to the program, students must normally have a minimum average of 70% in all previous courses and a minimum average of 75% in all previous Physics courses.

Acceptance will be contingent upon the student finding a project supervisor, and the Department’s assessment of the student’s suitability for the program. Students interested in doing Honours should consult the Department Chair as early as possible, normally before the beginning of the student’s third year, and no later than January 31 of the third year. Before registering for Physics 4900, the student must have been accepted into the Honours program, and the project topic must be approved by the Department.

To graduate with Honours in Physics, the student must maintain a minimum average of 75% in all Physics courses combined. Students must also maintain a minimum overall average of 70% in each of the four years of study.

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Careers:

- Physicist
- Meteorologist
- Lab Technician
- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

Students who intend to major in Physics are advised to consult the Department before registration. The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. In exceptional cases, courses may be taken in a different sequence provided that the pertinent prerequisites are fulfilled or permission is granted by the Department.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310)
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics—Four additional Physics courses taken at the 3000 level or above, but at least one must be above the 3000 level. (12 semester hours)
- Electives (Mathematics 3010 is highly recommended) (33 semester hours)

**REQUIREMENTS FOR A BSC WITH A MAJOR IN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING DIPLOMA STUDENTS**

Students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma program may wish to take additional Physics courses and work towards a Bachelor of Science degree. Students intending to enter this program should consult the Physics Department for detailed advice on course selection.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020 (for students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma Program, this may be replaced by Engineering 3210)
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics—At least seven additional courses taken from the following: Physics 2020 (if not already counted above), 2410, 3010, 3220, 3420, 3610, 3720, 3820, 3910, 4020, 4120, 4140, 4210, 4220, 4410 and Engineering 3420, 3820. At least one of the courses chosen must be at the 4000 level (21 semester hours)

The student must also complete all the requirements for the Engineering Diploma, and take sufficient courses (including Engineering courses) to satisfy the general requirements for a University degree. A total of 120 semester hours of credit is required.

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Careers:

- Physicist
- Meteorologist
- Lab Technician
- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

Students in the Minor Program in Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of Physics including:

- Physics 1110 – 3 hours
- Physics 1120 – 3 hours
- Physics 2210 – 3 hours
- Four additional Physics courses (12 semester hours) at the 2000 level or above.

Students intending to do a Minor in Physics are advised to take Mathematics 1910-1920 instead of 1120.

**MINOR IN BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS**

Students in the Minor Program in Biomedical Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of course credit, including these 3 core Physics courses:

General Biomedical Physics for the Life Sciences:

- Physics 1210 Physics for Life Sciences I – 3 hours
- Physics 1220 Physics for Life Sciences II – 3 hours
- Physics 2220 Modern Physics for Life Sciences – 3 hours

In addition, four electives (12 semester hours) must be chosen from the following suite of Physics and Biology courses:

Foundations of Biomedical Physics:

- Physics 2430 (formerly 3310) Physics of the Human Body – 3 hours
- Physics 3420 Introduction to Biomedical Physics – 3 hours
- Physics 3910 Radiation Detection and Measurement – 3 hours
- Physics 3520 (formerly 4420) Biomedical Imaging – 3 hours
- Biology 3530 Human Anatomy and Histology – 3 hours
- Biology 4010 Human Physiology & Pathophysiology – 3 hours

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Careers:

- Physicist
- Meteorologist
- Lab Technician
- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

The Physics Co-op program consists of eight academic terms and a minimum of four work terms. It is available as an option for students in both the Major and Honours Physics Programs.

See the Co-operative Education in Physics page for complete program details.

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Careers:

- Physicist
- Meteorologist
- Lab Technician
- Astronomer
- Medical Physicist
- Educator

- William Whelan, Professor, Chair
- Sheldon Opps, Professor
- Douglas C. Dahn, Associate Professor
- Derek W. Lawther, Associate Professor
- James Polson, Associate Professor

Overview

A cornerstone in the natural sciences and a foundation for research and development in the high-tech sector, physics is an exciting and rewarding field of study. It explores many of the deeper mysteries of the universe and can lead to a wide range of intriguing career and employment opportunities.

Department of Physics

Dr. William M. Whelan, Chair

Honours

The Honours program in Physics is intended to provide research experience at the undergraduate level. It is designed for students who are interested in continuing their studies at the graduate level in Physics or related fields, or who are planning careers where research experience would be an asset.

The Honours program comprises a total of 126 semester hours of course credit, including a research project worth 12 semester hours. A total of at least 60 semester hours of Physics is required (16 courses plus project).

The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended electives.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3010
- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4020
- Physics 4120
- Physics 4210
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics 4900
- Mathematics 3010
- Mathematics 3310, 4710, or 4720
- Electives, at least one of which must be an additional Physics course at the 3000 level or above (21 semester hours)

**ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS**

For admission to the program, students must normally have a minimum average of 70% in all previous courses and a minimum average of 75% in all previous Physics courses.

Acceptance will be contingent upon the student finding a project supervisor, and the Department’s assessment of the student’s suitability for the program. Students interested in doing Honours should consult the Department Chair as early as possible, normally before the beginning of the student’s third year, and no later than January 31 of the third year. Before registering for Physics 4900, the student must have been accepted into the Honours program, and the project topic must be approved by the Department.

To graduate with Honours in Physics, the student must maintain a minimum average of 75% in all Physics courses combined. Students must also maintain a minimum overall average of 70% in each of the four years of study.

Major

Students who intend to major in Physics are advised to consult the Department before registration. The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. In exceptional cases, courses may be taken in a different sequence provided that the pertinent prerequisites are fulfilled or permission is granted by the Department.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310)
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics—Four additional Physics courses taken at the 3000 level or above, but at least one must be above the 3000 level. (12 semester hours)
- Electives (Mathematics 3010 is highly recommended) (33 semester hours)

**REQUIREMENTS FOR A BSC WITH A MAJOR IN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING DIPLOMA STUDENTS**

Students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma program may wish to take additional Physics courses and work towards a Bachelor of Science degree. Students intending to enter this program should consult the Physics Department for detailed advice on course selection.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020 (for students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma Program, this may be replaced by Engineering 3210)
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics—At least seven additional courses taken from the following: Physics 2020 (if not already counted above), 2410, 3010, 3220, 3420, 3610, 3720, 3820, 3910, 4020, 4120, 4140, 4210, 4220, 4410 and Engineering 3420, 3820. At least one of the courses chosen must be at the 4000 level (21 semester hours)

The student must also complete all the requirements for the Engineering Diploma, and take sufficient courses (including Engineering courses) to satisfy the general requirements for a University degree. A total of 120 semester hours of credit is required.

Minor

Students in the Minor Program in Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of Physics including:

- Physics 1110 – 3 hours
- Physics 1120 – 3 hours
- Physics 2210 – 3 hours
- Four additional Physics courses (12 semester hours) at the 2000 level or above.

Students intending to do a Minor in Physics are advised to take Mathematics 1910-1920 instead of 1120.

**MINOR IN BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS**

Students in the Minor Program in Biomedical Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of course credit, including these 3 core Physics courses:

General Biomedical Physics for the Life Sciences:

- Physics 1210 Physics for Life Sciences I – 3 hours
- Physics 1220 Physics for Life Sciences II – 3 hours
- Physics 2220 Modern Physics for Life Sciences – 3 hours

In addition, four electives (12 semester hours) must be chosen from the following suite of Physics and Biology courses:

Foundations of Biomedical Physics:

- Physics 2430 (formerly 3310) Physics of the Human Body – 3 hours
- Physics 3420 Introduction to Biomedical Physics – 3 hours
- Physics 3910 Radiation Detection and Measurement – 3 hours
- Physics 3520 (formerly 4420) Biomedical Imaging – 3 hours
- Biology 3530 Human Anatomy and Histology – 3 hours
- Biology 4010 Human Physiology & Pathophysiology – 3 hours

Co-op

The Physics Co-op program consists of eight academic terms and a minimum of four work terms. It is available as an option for students in both the Major and Honours Physics Programs.

See the Co-operative Education in Physics page for complete program details.

Faculty

- William Whelan, Professor, Chair
- Sheldon Opps, Professor
- Douglas C. Dahn, Associate Professor
- Derek W. Lawther, Associate Professor
- James Polson, Associate Professor

Dr. William M. Whelan, Chair

Department of Physics

The Honours program in Physics is intended to provide research experience at the undergraduate level. It is designed for students who are interested in continuing their studies at the graduate level in Physics or related fields, or who are planning careers where research experience would be an asset.

The Honours program comprises a total of 126 semester hours of course credit, including a research project worth 12 semester hours. A total of at least 60 semester hours of Physics is required (16 courses plus project).

The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended electives.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3010
- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4020
- Physics 4120
- Physics 4210
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics 4900
- Mathematics 3010
- Mathematics 3310, 4710, or 4720
- Electives, at least one of which must be an additional Physics course at the 3000 level or above (21 semester hours)

**ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS**

For admission to the program, students must normally have a minimum average of 70% in all previous courses and a minimum average of 75% in all previous Physics courses.

Acceptance will be contingent upon the student finding a project supervisor, and the Department’s assessment of the student’s suitability for the program. Students interested in doing Honours should consult the Department Chair as early as possible, normally before the beginning of the student’s third year, and no later than January 31 of the third year. Before registering for Physics 4900, the student must have been accepted into the Honours program, and the project topic must be approved by the Department.

To graduate with Honours in Physics, the student must maintain a minimum average of 75% in all Physics courses combined. Students must also maintain a minimum overall average of 70% in each of the four years of study.

Students who intend to major in Physics are advised to consult the Department before registration. The normal University requirements must be met in addition to the Departmental requirements listed below. In exceptional cases, courses may be taken in a different sequence provided that the pertinent prerequisites are fulfilled or permission is granted by the Department.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120
- Mathematics 1910-1920
- Chemistry 1110-1120
- Computer Science 1910 OR Engineering 1310)
- Electives (Biology 1310-1320 are highly recommended) (9 semester hours)

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020
- Physics 2120
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820
- Mathematics 2610
- Mathematics 2910
- Electives (9 semester hours)

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics 3220
- Physics 3720
- Physics 4410 OR Physics 4430
- Physics—Four additional Physics courses taken at the 3000 level or above, but at least one must be above the 3000 level. (12 semester hours)
- Electives (Mathematics 3010 is highly recommended) (33 semester hours)

**REQUIREMENTS FOR A BSC WITH A MAJOR IN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING DIPLOMA STUDENTS**

Students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma program may wish to take additional Physics courses and work towards a Bachelor of Science degree. Students intending to enter this program should consult the Physics Department for detailed advice on course selection.

**First Year**

- Physics 1110-1120

**Second Year**

- Physics 2010
- Physics 2020 (for students enrolled in the Engineering Diploma Program, this may be replaced by Engineering 3210)
- Physics 2210
- Physics 2820

**Third and Fourth Years**

- Physics 3120
- Physics—At least seven additional courses taken from the following: Physics 2020 (if not already counted above), 2410, 3010, 3220, 3420, 3610, 3720, 3820, 3910, 4020, 4120, 4140, 4210, 4220, 4410 and Engineering 3420, 3820. At least one of the courses chosen must be at the 4000 level (21 semester hours)

The student must also complete all the requirements for the Engineering Diploma, and take sufficient courses (including Engineering courses) to satisfy the general requirements for a University degree. A total of 120 semester hours of credit is required.

Students in the Minor Program in Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of Physics including:

- Physics 1110 – 3 hours
- Physics 1120 – 3 hours
- Physics 2210 – 3 hours
- Four additional Physics courses (12 semester hours) at the 2000 level or above.

Students intending to do a Minor in Physics are advised to take Mathematics 1910-1920 instead of 1120.

**MINOR IN BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS**

Students in the Minor Program in Biomedical Physics must complete a total of 21 semester hours of course credit, including these 3 core Physics courses:

General Biomedical Physics for the Life Sciences:

- Physics 1210 Physics for Life Sciences I – 3 hours
- Physics 1220 Physics for Life Sciences II – 3 hours
- Physics 2220 Modern Physics for Life Sciences – 3 hours

In addition, four electives (12 semester hours) must be chosen from the following suite of Physics and Biology courses:

Foundations of Biomedical Physics:

- Physics 2430 (formerly 3310) Physics of the Human Body – 3 hours
- Physics 3420 Introduction to Biomedical Physics – 3 hours
- Physics 3910 Radiation Detection and Measurement – 3 hours
- Physics 3520 (formerly 4420) Biomedical Imaging – 3 hours
- Biology 3530 Human Anatomy and Histology – 3 hours
- Biology 4010 Human Physiology & Pathophysiology – 3 hours

The Physics Co-op program consists of eight academic terms and a minimum of four work terms. It is available as an option for students in both the Major and Honours Physics Programs.

See the Co-operative Education in Physics page for complete program details.

- William Whelan, Professor, Chair
- Sheldon Opps, Professor
- Douglas C. Dahn, Associate Professor
- Derek W. Lawther, Associate Professor
- James Polson, Associate Professor

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Careers:

Physicist

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Astronomer

Medical Physicist

Educator

Example Courses:

PHYS 111 - General Physics

PHYS 251 - Introductory Astronomy

PHYS 322 - Quantum Physics

PHYS 451 - Advanced Mechanics

Course Level:

100 Level

Courses:

111 GENERAL PHYSICS I

This course emphasizes the fundamentals of mechanics and is intended as a first course in physics for students in the physical sciences and engineering, or who are planning to take Physics courses beyond the first-year level. Topics include vectors, kinematics, Newton’s laws of motion, gravitation, circular motion, static equilibrium, moment of inertia, torque, rotational motion, and conservation of energy and momentum.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. Grade 12 Physics is required; however, in exceptional cases a student who has not taken Grade 12 Physics but has demonstrated outstanding performance in other High School Math and Science courses may apply to the Department for special permission. It is required that Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

112 GENERAL PHYSICS II

This course is a continuation of Physics 111 and is intended for, but not restricted to, those students who wish to pursue further studies in the physical sciences or engineering. Topics include oscillations, wave motion, sound and light, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 111, and Mathematics 191 or permission of the instructor. Mathematics 192 must be taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

121 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES I

This course is intended for life science and health science students. Students are introduced to the fundamental concepts of physics and some of their applications to biological systems. Topics include vectors, kinematics, force, energy and power, torque, linear and angular momentum, and fluid mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. It is required that Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently. High school physics is strongly recommended.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit in Physics 121 or 111, but not in both.

122 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES II

This course is a continuation of Physics 121 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology. Topics include properties of waves, acoustics and hearing, optics and vision, thermodynamics, and basic electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 121 or 111 and either Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

151 LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE

Beginning with a history of the evolving scientific thought on Earth’s place in the universe, students will learn the fundamental physics and biology concepts necessary to assess what makes a planet and solar system suitable for life. Topics will include current research missions within our solar system, the search for extrasolar planets, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and the social implications of discovering life elsewhere. This course is intended for non-science students but science students are welcome to enrol also**.**

Three credit-hour lecture

Course Level:

200 Level

Courses:

201 WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS

This course provides a basic introduction to the physics of mechanical waves. It begins with a study of the free, forced and damped harmonic oscillator and is followed by a study of discrete coupled oscillators in one dimension. This is used to derive the one-dimensional wave equation, which is used to study traveling and standing waves in continuous media. The course also provides an introduction to relevant mathematical concepts and methods, including complex numbers, partial derivatives, techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, and Fourier series.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Math 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

202 MECHANICS

Using a more advanced treatment than in the 100-level physics courses, this course gives the student a deeper understanding of the principles of mechanics. Topics include: vector kinematics, Newton’s laws, momentum, work and energy, rotational motion, and central force motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture per week

212 ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS

Topics include electric field and potential; magnetic field; electromagnetic induction; integral formulations of Gauss’ Law, Ampere’s Law and Faraday’s Law, direct-current and alternating-current circuits; resistance, capacitance, inductance and impedance; frequency response of AC circuits; and electrical measurements.

PREREQUISITE: Phys 201, and Phys 282 taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

221 MODERN PHYSICS

This course is a survey of the fundamental concepts of modern physics intended for both physics majors and other science majors. Topics include: relativity, photons and matter waves, the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, the uncertainty principle, quantum tunnelling, the hydrogen atom, line spectra, orbital and spin angular momentum, magnetic dipole moments, x-rays, the laser, electron energy bands in solids, nuclear properties, radioactive decay, fission, fusion, quarks, leptons, and the Big Bang.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

222 MODERN PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES

This course is a continuation of Physics 122 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology and applied clinical physics. Topics include atomic physics, nuclear physics, x-rays, diagnostic nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, nuclear magnetic resonance.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 122, or Physics 112

Three hours lecture per week

242 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 312)

243 (formerly 331) PHYSICS OF THE HUMAN BODY

This course provides students with an introduction to the physics of the human body. Physics concepts such as mechanics, energy, work, fluid statics and dynamics, sound, optics, electricity, and magnetism will be applied to better understand the functioning of the human body.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 112 or Physics 122. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

261 ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY

This course is directed to both science and non-science students who wish to improve their understanding of this major technological issue. Topics include: the basic concepts necessary to understand photosynthesis, nuclear power, acid deposition, the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and pollution. Particular emphasis is placed on Canadian and PEI examples, and on the implications for Third World development.

PREREQUISITE: Permission of the department

Three hours lecture (seminars and/or field visits to be arranged)

282 (FORMERLY 381) MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICS

This course is an introduction to some of the mathematical methods commonly used in the physical sciences and engineering, with an emphasis on applications in physics. Topics include: vector calculus in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates, Cartesian tensors, an introduction to complex variables, Fourier series and Fourier transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations.

Cross-listed with Mathematics (cf. Mathematics 282)

PREREQUISITE: Math 291 and either Physics 112 or Physics 122

Three hours lecture per week

292 STARS, GALAXIES, AND THE UNIVERSE

This course is an introduction to the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Topics of study include observation of Earth’s sky, gravity, light, and its use in astronomical instruments; properties and energy production of our Sun; methods of measuring astronomical distances; the structure, energy, and evolution of stars; interstellar matter and the structure of the Milky Way galaxy; other galaxies; cosmology; and some other related topics of interest.**Note:** Credit will not be allowed for Physics 292 if a student has already received credit for Physics 251 or 252.

PREREQUISITES: A first-year physics course or permission of the instructor.

Three-credit hour lecture; three-credit hour laboratory or field observations.

Course Level:

300 Level

Courses:

301 (formerly 451) ADVANCED MECHANICS

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations are presented as alternatives to the conventional treatment of Newton’s laws and are applied to classical problems such as harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, the two-body central force problem, and rigid body motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 and Physics 282 or Mathematics 301

Three hours lecture per week

312 ELECTROMAGNETISM I

This course develops fundamental concepts in electricity and magnetism. Topics include electric fields and potentials, capacitance, dielectric materials, magnetic fields, magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic induction, inductance, Maxwell’s equations, and an introduction to electromagnetic waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212

Three hours lecture per week

322 QUANTUM PHYSICS I

This course introduces some of the fundamental methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the postulates and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, the Dirac description of quantum mechanics, applications to a variety of one-dimensional problems such as quantum tunnelling, and the harmonic oscillator.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Mathematics 291 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

342 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS

This course provides students with an introduction to physics methods and methodology in medicine. Topics include: basic concepts in medical imaging, optical and fluorescence imaging, lasers in medicine, radiation transport in tissues, nuclear medicine, radiation dosimetry and therapy, and biomedical optics and acoustics applications.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 221 or Physics 222. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

343 RESEARCH PROJECT

This course allows students majoring in Physics to participate in a research project. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and are required to write a report describing the work, and give an oral presentation on the work.

PREREQUISITE: Completion of all required 200-level courses for the Major in Physics. Entry into the course is contingent upon the student finding a faculty member willing to supervise the research and departmental approval of the research proposal.

Three semester hours

351 ADVANCED BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 481)

352 (formerly 442) BIOMEDICAL IMAGING

This course concentrates on recent advanced modalities in medical imaging, and includes digital imaging, computed tomography, and digital fluoroscopy, as well as an introduction to bone mineral densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222, or permission of the instructor

Three lecture hours per week

361 (formerly 431) SOLID STATE PHYSICS

This is an introductory course in Solid State Physics, which covers the basic physics of crystalline solids. Topics include: crystal structures; structure determination by x-ray diffraction; crystal bonding; lattice vibrations and phonons; the free and nearly-free electron models; and the energy band structures of metals, insulators and semiconductors.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

371 (formerly 472) GENERAL RELATIVITY

This course provides an introduction to the field of general relativity. The course begins with a development of special relativity in tensor form and the introduction of the stress-energy tensor. Essential tensor calculus in relation to curved Riemannian manifolds is developed and the Einstein field equations are introduced. Applications include the structure of stars and black holes, planetary trajectories in strong gravitational fields, and gravitational waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

372 STATISTICAL PHYSICS I

This course provides students with an introduction to the statistical description of macroscopic systems and focuses on both statistical and classical thermodynamics. Topics include the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, the perfect quantal and classical gas, black body radiation, the Einstein and Debye description of solids, and the laws of thermodynamics and some of their consequences and applications.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112, Physics 282 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

382 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS

This course is designed to provide students with direct experience in the use of advanced computer-based techniques for modelling physical systems. A variety of computational techniques are used to study a number of phenomena, including realistic projectile motion, chaotic motion, planetary dynamics, electromagnetism, wave motion, and quantum wave function dynamics. The course also provides an introduction to advanced molecular simulation methods, including Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 or Physics 221, Mathematics 291, and Computer Science 191 or Engineering 131

Three hours lecture per week

391 RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT

This course provides students with an understanding of the theory and operation of radiation detectors. Topics include: radiation sources; the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; the principles of operation and use of gas-filled, scintillation and semiconductor diode detectors; spectroscopy techniques and the use of related electronics; and shielding.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

Course Level:

400 Level

Courses:

402 STATISTICAL PHYSICS II

This course builds upon the material presented in Statistical Physics I and covers the basic elements of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Topics include an introduction to the grand canonical ensemble, thermodynamic equilibrium, stability, fluctuations, phase transitions, quantum statistics, and interacting systems. A variety of applications to systems such as ideal gases, Bose gases, Fermi gases, and paramagnets is included.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 372

Three hours lecture per week

412 ELECTROMAGNETISM II

This is an advanced course covering classical electromagnetic theory based on Maxwell’s equations. Topics include: electro-statics, magnetostatics, solutions to boundary value problems, electric and magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic wave propagation, electromagnetic radiation, and an introduction to relativistic electrodynamics.

PREREQUISITES: Physics 312

Three hours lecture per week

414 OPTICS AND PHOTONICS

This course focuses on the fundamentals of optics and photonics with biomedical applications. Topics include energy flow in electromagnetic fields, reflection and transmission, interference and diffraction, optical properties of materials, dispersion and losses, waveguides, spectra and spectral line broadening, partially polarized radiation, lasers and modulators, crystal optics, detectors and couplers.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 201, Physics 312 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

421 QUANTUM PHYSICS II

This course further develops the fundamental concepts and methodology of quantum mechanics. Topics include angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, spin, matrix mechanics, and time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

422 ADVANCED TOPICS IN QUANTUM PHYSICS

This is an advanced course in which important physical problems are solved using the basic methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules, scattering theory, and an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 421

Three hours lecture per week

441 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS I

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on statistical physics, thermodynamics and solid state physics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221. Physics 322 and Physics 372 taken at least concurrently or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

443 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS II

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on electricity and magnetism, optics and mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212, Physics 312 and Physics 322 or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

461-462 DIRECTED STUDIES

These courses are either reading courses, or research projects, which require the students to investigate a specific topic to a much greater depth than is possible in the department’s usual course offerings.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

(See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

463-464 SPECIAL TOPICS

These courses take advantage of unusual opportunities such as the availability of a visiting researcher to teach a course related to his/her field of expertise, or a course offer on an experimental basis, etc.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

471 PARTICLE PHYSICS

This course provides an introduction to the field of particle physics. The course begins with a historical background of elementary particles, followed by a review of relativistic kinematics. A main focus of the course is the development of the Standard Model, including a detailed discussion of the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces that govern particle interactions. Topics include: conservation laws; symmetries; particle decays, bound states, and scattering processes; and Feynman rules.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 312 and Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

Semester hours of credit: 3

490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS

The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to pursue further studies at the graduate level, or who is planning a career where research experience in Physics or related areas would be an asset. An independent research project is done under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The research results are reported in thesis format and are presented orally at a department seminar.

PREREQUISITE: Acceptance into the Honours Physics program

Twelve semester hours of credit

111 GENERAL PHYSICS I

This course emphasizes the fundamentals of mechanics and is intended as a first course in physics for students in the physical sciences and engineering, or who are planning to take Physics courses beyond the first-year level. Topics include vectors, kinematics, Newton’s laws of motion, gravitation, circular motion, static equilibrium, moment of inertia, torque, rotational motion, and conservation of energy and momentum.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. Grade 12 Physics is required; however, in exceptional cases a student who has not taken Grade 12 Physics but has demonstrated outstanding performance in other High School Math and Science courses may apply to the Department for special permission. It is required that Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

112 GENERAL PHYSICS II

This course is a continuation of Physics 111 and is intended for, but not restricted to, those students who wish to pursue further studies in the physical sciences or engineering. Topics include oscillations, wave motion, sound and light, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 111, and Mathematics 191 or permission of the instructor. Mathematics 192 must be taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

121 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES I

This course is intended for life science and health science students. Students are introduced to the fundamental concepts of physics and some of their applications to biological systems. Topics include vectors, kinematics, force, energy and power, torque, linear and angular momentum, and fluid mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. It is required that Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently. High school physics is strongly recommended.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit in Physics 121 or 111, but not in both.

122 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES II

This course is a continuation of Physics 121 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology. Topics include properties of waves, acoustics and hearing, optics and vision, thermodynamics, and basic electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 121 or 111 and either Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

151 LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE

Beginning with a history of the evolving scientific thought on Earth’s place in the universe, students will learn the fundamental physics and biology concepts necessary to assess what makes a planet and solar system suitable for life. Topics will include current research missions within our solar system, the search for extrasolar planets, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and the social implications of discovering life elsewhere. This course is intended for non-science students but science students are welcome to enrol also**.**

Three credit-hour lecture

201 WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS

This course provides a basic introduction to the physics of mechanical waves. It begins with a study of the free, forced and damped harmonic oscillator and is followed by a study of discrete coupled oscillators in one dimension. This is used to derive the one-dimensional wave equation, which is used to study traveling and standing waves in continuous media. The course also provides an introduction to relevant mathematical concepts and methods, including complex numbers, partial derivatives, techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, and Fourier series.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Math 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

202 MECHANICS

Using a more advanced treatment than in the 100-level physics courses, this course gives the student a deeper understanding of the principles of mechanics. Topics include: vector kinematics, Newton’s laws, momentum, work and energy, rotational motion, and central force motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture per week

212 ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS

Topics include electric field and potential; magnetic field; electromagnetic induction; integral formulations of Gauss’ Law, Ampere’s Law and Faraday’s Law, direct-current and alternating-current circuits; resistance, capacitance, inductance and impedance; frequency response of AC circuits; and electrical measurements.

PREREQUISITE: Phys 201, and Phys 282 taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

221 MODERN PHYSICS

This course is a survey of the fundamental concepts of modern physics intended for both physics majors and other science majors. Topics include: relativity, photons and matter waves, the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, the uncertainty principle, quantum tunnelling, the hydrogen atom, line spectra, orbital and spin angular momentum, magnetic dipole moments, x-rays, the laser, electron energy bands in solids, nuclear properties, radioactive decay, fission, fusion, quarks, leptons, and the Big Bang.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

222 MODERN PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES

This course is a continuation of Physics 122 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology and applied clinical physics. Topics include atomic physics, nuclear physics, x-rays, diagnostic nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, nuclear magnetic resonance.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 122, or Physics 112

Three hours lecture per week

242 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 312)

243 (formerly 331) PHYSICS OF THE HUMAN BODY

This course provides students with an introduction to the physics of the human body. Physics concepts such as mechanics, energy, work, fluid statics and dynamics, sound, optics, electricity, and magnetism will be applied to better understand the functioning of the human body.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 112 or Physics 122. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

261 ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY

This course is directed to both science and non-science students who wish to improve their understanding of this major technological issue. Topics include: the basic concepts necessary to understand photosynthesis, nuclear power, acid deposition, the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and pollution. Particular emphasis is placed on Canadian and PEI examples, and on the implications for Third World development.

PREREQUISITE: Permission of the department

Three hours lecture (seminars and/or field visits to be arranged)

282 (FORMERLY 381) MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICS

This course is an introduction to some of the mathematical methods commonly used in the physical sciences and engineering, with an emphasis on applications in physics. Topics include: vector calculus in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates, Cartesian tensors, an introduction to complex variables, Fourier series and Fourier transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations.

Cross-listed with Mathematics (cf. Mathematics 282)

PREREQUISITE: Math 291 and either Physics 112 or Physics 122

Three hours lecture per week

292 STARS, GALAXIES, AND THE UNIVERSE

This course is an introduction to the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Topics of study include observation of Earth’s sky, gravity, light, and its use in astronomical instruments; properties and energy production of our Sun; methods of measuring astronomical distances; the structure, energy, and evolution of stars; interstellar matter and the structure of the Milky Way galaxy; other galaxies; cosmology; and some other related topics of interest.**Note:** Credit will not be allowed for Physics 292 if a student has already received credit for Physics 251 or 252.

PREREQUISITES: A first-year physics course or permission of the instructor.

Three-credit hour lecture; three-credit hour laboratory or field observations.

301 (formerly 451) ADVANCED MECHANICS

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations are presented as alternatives to the conventional treatment of Newton’s laws and are applied to classical problems such as harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, the two-body central force problem, and rigid body motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 and Physics 282 or Mathematics 301

Three hours lecture per week

312 ELECTROMAGNETISM I

This course develops fundamental concepts in electricity and magnetism. Topics include electric fields and potentials, capacitance, dielectric materials, magnetic fields, magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic induction, inductance, Maxwell’s equations, and an introduction to electromagnetic waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212

Three hours lecture per week

322 QUANTUM PHYSICS I

This course introduces some of the fundamental methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the postulates and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, the Dirac description of quantum mechanics, applications to a variety of one-dimensional problems such as quantum tunnelling, and the harmonic oscillator.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Mathematics 291 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

342 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS

This course provides students with an introduction to physics methods and methodology in medicine. Topics include: basic concepts in medical imaging, optical and fluorescence imaging, lasers in medicine, radiation transport in tissues, nuclear medicine, radiation dosimetry and therapy, and biomedical optics and acoustics applications.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 221 or Physics 222. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

343 RESEARCH PROJECT

This course allows students majoring in Physics to participate in a research project. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and are required to write a report describing the work, and give an oral presentation on the work.

PREREQUISITE: Completion of all required 200-level courses for the Major in Physics. Entry into the course is contingent upon the student finding a faculty member willing to supervise the research and departmental approval of the research proposal.

Three semester hours

351 ADVANCED BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 481)

352 (formerly 442) BIOMEDICAL IMAGING

This course concentrates on recent advanced modalities in medical imaging, and includes digital imaging, computed tomography, and digital fluoroscopy, as well as an introduction to bone mineral densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222, or permission of the instructor

Three lecture hours per week

361 (formerly 431) SOLID STATE PHYSICS

This is an introductory course in Solid State Physics, which covers the basic physics of crystalline solids. Topics include: crystal structures; structure determination by x-ray diffraction; crystal bonding; lattice vibrations and phonons; the free and nearly-free electron models; and the energy band structures of metals, insulators and semiconductors.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

371 (formerly 472) GENERAL RELATIVITY

This course provides an introduction to the field of general relativity. The course begins with a development of special relativity in tensor form and the introduction of the stress-energy tensor. Essential tensor calculus in relation to curved Riemannian manifolds is developed and the Einstein field equations are introduced. Applications include the structure of stars and black holes, planetary trajectories in strong gravitational fields, and gravitational waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

372 STATISTICAL PHYSICS I

This course provides students with an introduction to the statistical description of macroscopic systems and focuses on both statistical and classical thermodynamics. Topics include the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, the perfect quantal and classical gas, black body radiation, the Einstein and Debye description of solids, and the laws of thermodynamics and some of their consequences and applications.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112, Physics 282 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

382 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS

This course is designed to provide students with direct experience in the use of advanced computer-based techniques for modelling physical systems. A variety of computational techniques are used to study a number of phenomena, including realistic projectile motion, chaotic motion, planetary dynamics, electromagnetism, wave motion, and quantum wave function dynamics. The course also provides an introduction to advanced molecular simulation methods, including Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 or Physics 221, Mathematics 291, and Computer Science 191 or Engineering 131

Three hours lecture per week

391 RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT

This course provides students with an understanding of the theory and operation of radiation detectors. Topics include: radiation sources; the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; the principles of operation and use of gas-filled, scintillation and semiconductor diode detectors; spectroscopy techniques and the use of related electronics; and shielding.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

402 STATISTICAL PHYSICS II

This course builds upon the material presented in Statistical Physics I and covers the basic elements of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Topics include an introduction to the grand canonical ensemble, thermodynamic equilibrium, stability, fluctuations, phase transitions, quantum statistics, and interacting systems. A variety of applications to systems such as ideal gases, Bose gases, Fermi gases, and paramagnets is included.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 372

Three hours lecture per week

412 ELECTROMAGNETISM II

This is an advanced course covering classical electromagnetic theory based on Maxwell’s equations. Topics include: electro-statics, magnetostatics, solutions to boundary value problems, electric and magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic wave propagation, electromagnetic radiation, and an introduction to relativistic electrodynamics.

PREREQUISITES: Physics 312

Three hours lecture per week

414 OPTICS AND PHOTONICS

This course focuses on the fundamentals of optics and photonics with biomedical applications. Topics include energy flow in electromagnetic fields, reflection and transmission, interference and diffraction, optical properties of materials, dispersion and losses, waveguides, spectra and spectral line broadening, partially polarized radiation, lasers and modulators, crystal optics, detectors and couplers.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 201, Physics 312 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

421 QUANTUM PHYSICS II

This course further develops the fundamental concepts and methodology of quantum mechanics. Topics include angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, spin, matrix mechanics, and time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

422 ADVANCED TOPICS IN QUANTUM PHYSICS

This is an advanced course in which important physical problems are solved using the basic methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules, scattering theory, and an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 421

Three hours lecture per week

441 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS I

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on statistical physics, thermodynamics and solid state physics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221. Physics 322 and Physics 372 taken at least concurrently or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

443 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS II

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on electricity and magnetism, optics and mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212, Physics 312 and Physics 322 or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

461-462 DIRECTED STUDIES

These courses are either reading courses, or research projects, which require the students to investigate a specific topic to a much greater depth than is possible in the department’s usual course offerings.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

(See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

463-464 SPECIAL TOPICS

These courses take advantage of unusual opportunities such as the availability of a visiting researcher to teach a course related to his/her field of expertise, or a course offer on an experimental basis, etc.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

471 PARTICLE PHYSICS

This course provides an introduction to the field of particle physics. The course begins with a historical background of elementary particles, followed by a review of relativistic kinematics. A main focus of the course is the development of the Standard Model, including a detailed discussion of the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces that govern particle interactions. Topics include: conservation laws; symmetries; particle decays, bound states, and scattering processes; and Feynman rules.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 312 and Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

Semester hours of credit: 3

490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS

The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to pursue further studies at the graduate level, or who is planning a career where research experience in Physics or related areas would be an asset. An independent research project is done under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The research results are reported in thesis format and are presented orally at a department seminar.

PREREQUISITE: Acceptance into the Honours Physics program

Twelve semester hours of credit

111 GENERAL PHYSICS I

This course emphasizes the fundamentals of mechanics and is intended as a first course in physics for students in the physical sciences and engineering, or who are planning to take Physics courses beyond the first-year level. Topics include vectors, kinematics, Newton’s laws of motion, gravitation, circular motion, static equilibrium, moment of inertia, torque, rotational motion, and conservation of energy and momentum.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. Grade 12 Physics is required; however, in exceptional cases a student who has not taken Grade 12 Physics but has demonstrated outstanding performance in other High School Math and Science courses may apply to the Department for special permission. It is required that Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

112 GENERAL PHYSICS II

This course is a continuation of Physics 111 and is intended for, but not restricted to, those students who wish to pursue further studies in the physical sciences or engineering. Topics include oscillations, wave motion, sound and light, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 111, and Mathematics 191 or permission of the instructor. Mathematics 192 must be taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

121 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES I

This course is intended for life science and health science students. Students are introduced to the fundamental concepts of physics and some of their applications to biological systems. Topics include vectors, kinematics, force, energy and power, torque, linear and angular momentum, and fluid mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Proficiency in High School algebra, trigonometry and graphing is expected. It is required that Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191 be taken at least concurrently. High school physics is strongly recommended.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit in Physics 121 or 111, but not in both.

122 PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES II

This course is a continuation of Physics 121 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology. Topics include properties of waves, acoustics and hearing, optics and vision, thermodynamics, and basic electricity and magnetism.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 121 or 111 and either Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 191, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory or tutorial per week

NOTE: Students may obtain credit for Physics 122 or 112 but not both.

151 LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE

Beginning with a history of the evolving scientific thought on Earth’s place in the universe, students will learn the fundamental physics and biology concepts necessary to assess what makes a planet and solar system suitable for life. Topics will include current research missions within our solar system, the search for extrasolar planets, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and the social implications of discovering life elsewhere. This course is intended for non-science students but science students are welcome to enrol also**.**

Three credit-hour lecture

201 WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS

This course provides a basic introduction to the physics of mechanical waves. It begins with a study of the free, forced and damped harmonic oscillator and is followed by a study of discrete coupled oscillators in one dimension. This is used to derive the one-dimensional wave equation, which is used to study traveling and standing waves in continuous media. The course also provides an introduction to relevant mathematical concepts and methods, including complex numbers, partial derivatives, techniques for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, and Fourier series.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Math 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

202 MECHANICS

Using a more advanced treatment than in the 100-level physics courses, this course gives the student a deeper understanding of the principles of mechanics. Topics include: vector kinematics, Newton’s laws, momentum, work and energy, rotational motion, and central force motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor.

Three hours lecture per week

212 ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS

Topics include electric field and potential; magnetic field; electromagnetic induction; integral formulations of Gauss’ Law, Ampere’s Law and Faraday’s Law, direct-current and alternating-current circuits; resistance, capacitance, inductance and impedance; frequency response of AC circuits; and electrical measurements.

PREREQUISITE: Phys 201, and Phys 282 taken at least concurrently

Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory per week

221 MODERN PHYSICS

This course is a survey of the fundamental concepts of modern physics intended for both physics majors and other science majors. Topics include: relativity, photons and matter waves, the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, the uncertainty principle, quantum tunnelling, the hydrogen atom, line spectra, orbital and spin angular momentum, magnetic dipole moments, x-rays, the laser, electron energy bands in solids, nuclear properties, radioactive decay, fission, fusion, quarks, leptons, and the Big Bang.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112 and Mathematics 192, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

222 MODERN PHYSICS FOR LIFE SCIENCES

This course is a continuation of Physics 122 intended for students in the life sciences, introducing additional physics concepts with emphasis on their application to biology and applied clinical physics. Topics include atomic physics, nuclear physics, x-rays, diagnostic nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, nuclear magnetic resonance.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 122, or Physics 112

Three hours lecture per week

242 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 312)

243 (formerly 331) PHYSICS OF THE HUMAN BODY

This course provides students with an introduction to the physics of the human body. Physics concepts such as mechanics, energy, work, fluid statics and dynamics, sound, optics, electricity, and magnetism will be applied to better understand the functioning of the human body.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 112 or Physics 122. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

261 ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND THE ECONOMY

This course is directed to both science and non-science students who wish to improve their understanding of this major technological issue. Topics include: the basic concepts necessary to understand photosynthesis, nuclear power, acid deposition, the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and pollution. Particular emphasis is placed on Canadian and PEI examples, and on the implications for Third World development.

PREREQUISITE: Permission of the department

Three hours lecture (seminars and/or field visits to be arranged)

282 (FORMERLY 381) MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICS

This course is an introduction to some of the mathematical methods commonly used in the physical sciences and engineering, with an emphasis on applications in physics. Topics include: vector calculus in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates, Cartesian tensors, an introduction to complex variables, Fourier series and Fourier transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations.

Cross-listed with Mathematics (cf. Mathematics 282)

PREREQUISITE: Math 291 and either Physics 112 or Physics 122

Three hours lecture per week

292 STARS, GALAXIES, AND THE UNIVERSE

This course is an introduction to the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Topics of study include observation of Earth’s sky, gravity, light, and its use in astronomical instruments; properties and energy production of our Sun; methods of measuring astronomical distances; the structure, energy, and evolution of stars; interstellar matter and the structure of the Milky Way galaxy; other galaxies; cosmology; and some other related topics of interest.**Note:** Credit will not be allowed for Physics 292 if a student has already received credit for Physics 251 or 252.

PREREQUISITES: A first-year physics course or permission of the instructor.

Three-credit hour lecture; three-credit hour laboratory or field observations.

301 (formerly 451) ADVANCED MECHANICS

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations are presented as alternatives to the conventional treatment of Newton’s laws and are applied to classical problems such as harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, the two-body central force problem, and rigid body motion.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 and Physics 282 or Mathematics 301

Three hours lecture per week

312 ELECTROMAGNETISM I

This course develops fundamental concepts in electricity and magnetism. Topics include electric fields and potentials, capacitance, dielectric materials, magnetic fields, magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic induction, inductance, Maxwell’s equations, and an introduction to electromagnetic waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212

Three hours lecture per week

322 QUANTUM PHYSICS I

This course introduces some of the fundamental methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the postulates and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, the Dirac description of quantum mechanics, applications to a variety of one-dimensional problems such as quantum tunnelling, and the harmonic oscillator.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Mathematics 291 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

342 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS

This course provides students with an introduction to physics methods and methodology in medicine. Topics include: basic concepts in medical imaging, optical and fluorescence imaging, lasers in medicine, radiation transport in tissues, nuclear medicine, radiation dosimetry and therapy, and biomedical optics and acoustics applications.

PREREQUISITE: Biology 131, and Physics 221 or Physics 222. Otherwise, permission of the instructor is required

Three hours lecture per week

343 RESEARCH PROJECT

This course allows students majoring in Physics to participate in a research project. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and are required to write a report describing the work, and give an oral presentation on the work.

PREREQUISITE: Completion of all required 200-level courses for the Major in Physics. Entry into the course is contingent upon the student finding a faculty member willing to supervise the research and departmental approval of the research proposal.

Three semester hours

351 ADVANCED BIOMECHANICS

(See Kinesiology 481)

352 (formerly 442) BIOMEDICAL IMAGING

This course concentrates on recent advanced modalities in medical imaging, and includes digital imaging, computed tomography, and digital fluoroscopy, as well as an introduction to bone mineral densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222, or permission of the instructor

Three lecture hours per week

361 (formerly 431) SOLID STATE PHYSICS

This is an introductory course in Solid State Physics, which covers the basic physics of crystalline solids. Topics include: crystal structures; structure determination by x-ray diffraction; crystal bonding; lattice vibrations and phonons; the free and nearly-free electron models; and the energy band structures of metals, insulators and semiconductors.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

371 (formerly 472) GENERAL RELATIVITY

This course provides an introduction to the field of general relativity. The course begins with a development of special relativity in tensor form and the introduction of the stress-energy tensor. Essential tensor calculus in relation to curved Riemannian manifolds is developed and the Einstein field equations are introduced. Applications include the structure of stars and black holes, planetary trajectories in strong gravitational fields, and gravitational waves.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202, Physics 221 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

372 STATISTICAL PHYSICS I

This course provides students with an introduction to the statistical description of macroscopic systems and focuses on both statistical and classical thermodynamics. Topics include the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, the perfect quantal and classical gas, black body radiation, the Einstein and Debye description of solids, and the laws of thermodynamics and some of their consequences and applications.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 112, Physics 282 and Mathematics 291, or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

382 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS

This course is designed to provide students with direct experience in the use of advanced computer-based techniques for modelling physical systems. A variety of computational techniques are used to study a number of phenomena, including realistic projectile motion, chaotic motion, planetary dynamics, electromagnetism, wave motion, and quantum wave function dynamics. The course also provides an introduction to advanced molecular simulation methods, including Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 202 or Physics 221, Mathematics 291, and Computer Science 191 or Engineering 131

Three hours lecture per week

391 RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT

This course provides students with an understanding of the theory and operation of radiation detectors. Topics include: radiation sources; the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; the principles of operation and use of gas-filled, scintillation and semiconductor diode detectors; spectroscopy techniques and the use of related electronics; and shielding.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221 or Physics 222 or permission of the instructor

Three hours lecture per week

402 STATISTICAL PHYSICS II

This course builds upon the material presented in Statistical Physics I and covers the basic elements of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Topics include an introduction to the grand canonical ensemble, thermodynamic equilibrium, stability, fluctuations, phase transitions, quantum statistics, and interacting systems. A variety of applications to systems such as ideal gases, Bose gases, Fermi gases, and paramagnets is included.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 372

Three hours lecture per week

412 ELECTROMAGNETISM II

This is an advanced course covering classical electromagnetic theory based on Maxwell’s equations. Topics include: electro-statics, magnetostatics, solutions to boundary value problems, electric and magnetic properties of materials, electromagnetic wave propagation, electromagnetic radiation, and an introduction to relativistic electrodynamics.

PREREQUISITES: Physics 312

Three hours lecture per week

414 OPTICS AND PHOTONICS

This course focuses on the fundamentals of optics and photonics with biomedical applications. Topics include energy flow in electromagnetic fields, reflection and transmission, interference and diffraction, optical properties of materials, dispersion and losses, waveguides, spectra and spectral line broadening, partially polarized radiation, lasers and modulators, crystal optics, detectors and couplers.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 201, Physics 312 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

421 QUANTUM PHYSICS II

This course further develops the fundamental concepts and methodology of quantum mechanics. Topics include angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, spin, matrix mechanics, and time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 322 and Physics 282

Three hours lecture per week

422 ADVANCED TOPICS IN QUANTUM PHYSICS

This is an advanced course in which important physical problems are solved using the basic methods of quantum mechanics. Topics include the quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules, scattering theory, and an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 421

Three hours lecture per week

441 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS I

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on statistical physics, thermodynamics and solid state physics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 221. Physics 322 and Physics 372 taken at least concurrently or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

443 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS II

This advanced laboratory course introduces students to all phases of an experimental project, from design, planning, and setup of the apparatus, to detailed analysis and formal presentation of the results. Students perform a small number of in-depth experiments with special emphasis on electricity and magnetism, optics and mechanics.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 212, Physics 312 and Physics 322 or permission of the instructor

One hour lecture, six hours laboratory per week

461-462 DIRECTED STUDIES

These courses are either reading courses, or research projects, which require the students to investigate a specific topic to a much greater depth than is possible in the department’s usual course offerings.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

(See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies.)

463-464 SPECIAL TOPICS

These courses take advantage of unusual opportunities such as the availability of a visiting researcher to teach a course related to his/her field of expertise, or a course offer on an experimental basis, etc.

PREREQUISITE: Physics Majors with at least third-year standing, or permission of the department

Three semester hours of credit

471 PARTICLE PHYSICS

This course provides an introduction to the field of particle physics. The course begins with a historical background of elementary particles, followed by a review of relativistic kinematics. A main focus of the course is the development of the Standard Model, including a detailed discussion of the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces that govern particle interactions. Topics include: conservation laws; symmetries; particle decays, bound states, and scattering processes; and Feynman rules.

PREREQUISITE: Physics 312 and Physics 322

Three hours lecture per week

Semester hours of credit: 3

490 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS

The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to pursue further studies at the graduate level, or who is planning a career where research experience in Physics or related areas would be an asset. An independent research project is done under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The research results are reported in thesis format and are presented orally at a department seminar.

PREREQUISITE: Acceptance into the Honours Physics program

Twelve semester hours of credit